Publications

Many of our publications can be accessed on researchgate

Safety and Reliability Evaluation for Electric Vehicles in Modern Power System Networks

Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Safety and Reliability Evaluation for Electric Vehicles in Modern Power System Networks

Heidari Gandoman, F., Omar, N., Van Mierlo, J., Ahmadi, A., Hossam Eldeen Abdel Aleem, S. & Chauhan, K., 1 Aug 2019, Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids. Kumar Chauhan, R. & Chauhan, K. (eds.). 1st ed. Elsevier : Elsevier, p. 152-177

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

Over the past decades, by introducing alternative energy sources, the trend of using fossil-fuel energy has been changed. In this regard, the automotive industry as one of the largest industries in the world has contributed to this issue remarkably. The Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) through introduced Electric Vehicles (EVs) as green car play an important role to come over the problem. However, new challenges have emerged in the EVs such as lifetime forecasting, failures analysis, safety issues. The safety and reliability concept of EVs’ components are important aspects to show an overall perspective of the system regarding lifetime, service and maintenance and so on. This chapter presents the role of reliability and safety in EVs’ electric components from different points of view. Furthermore, the challenges and future perspective of EVs relating to the safety and reliability have been investigated.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids
EditorsRajeev Kumar Chauhan, Kalpana Chauhan
Place of PublicationElsevier
PublisherElsevier
Chapter15
Pages152-177
Edition1st
ISBN (Print)9780128177747
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

Battery aging assessment and parametric study of lithium-ion batteries by means of a fractional differential model

Fri, 10 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Battery aging assessment and parametric study of lithium-ion batteries by means of a fractional differential model

De Sutter, L., Firouz, Y., De Hoog, J., Omar, N. & Van Mierlo, J., 10 May 2019, In : Electrochimica Acta. 305, p. 24-36 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

An extensive parametric study of an alternative battery model, the fractional differential model (FDM), is presented for the first time over the entire lifetime of 20Ah NMC cells. The evolution of the FDM's model parameters, identified in the time-domain, is compared to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results to assess their physico-chemical significance. This comprehensive parametric analysis shows that the FDM is able to capture relevant physico-chemical information with regards to the ohmic resistance over the entire SoC range and battery lifetime. Furthermore, the FDM's electrical performance is compared to the conventional first order RC battery model over the entire battery lifetime. Thanks to the FDM's non-integer derivatives for system states, it is able to capture intrinsic fractional derivative properties such as diffusion dynamics, charge transfer and memory hysteresis, which results in an improved simulation accuracy compared to the RC model. The comparative study showed an improved simulation accuracy of the FDM up to 85% in the lowest SoC range and a minimum improvement of 40% over the entire SoC range, considering the entire battery lifetime. Inherently proving that the FDM's ability to capture highly nonlinear battery behavior in the low SoC region persists over battery lifetime.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-36
Number of pages13
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume305
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2019

Fuzzy multi-objective placement of renewable energy sources in distribution system with objective of loss reduction and reliability improvement using a novel hybrid method

Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Fuzzy multi-objective placement of renewable energy sources in distribution system with objective of loss reduction and reliability improvement using a novel hybrid method

Arabi Nowdeh, S., Faraji Davoudkhani, I., Hadidian Moghaddam, M. J., Seifi Najmi, E., Y. Abdelaziz, A., Ahmadi, A., E. Razavi, S. & Heidari Gandoman, F., 1 Apr 2019, In : Applied Soft Computing. 77, p. 761-779 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

One of methods for loss reduction and reliability improvement of radial distribution system is using of renewable energy generation. In this paper, a new optimal placement and sizing of renewable energy sources based on photovoltaic panels (PVs) and wind turbines (WTs) in the distribution network is
presented with the objective of loss reduction and reliability improvement based on energy not-supplied (ENS). A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on fuzzy decision-making method, called the Multi-Objective Hybrid Teaching–Learning Based Optimization-Grey Wolf Optimizer (MOHTLBOGWO) is proposed to solve the optimization problem. The proposed hybrid method has a high convergence speed and not trapped at all in local optimal. The proposed method is implemented in the form of singleobjective and multi-objective on 33 and 69 bus IEEE radial distribution networks. The simulation results clear that the multi-objective optimization is a more precise approach to network utilization taking into account all objective indices than the single objective method. The results show that the proposed method has better convergence speed and less convergence tolerance in achieving to best solution in comparison with TLBO and GWO methods in loss reduction, reliability improvement and increasing the net saving and also in comparison with last studies. Moreover, the results show that dispersion of the size and location of distributed renewable generation leads to a further reduction in losses and a better improvement of the reliability criterion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)761-779
Number of pages19
JournalApplied Soft Computing
Volume77
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

Inzicht in mobiliteitsoplossingen voor Belgische bedrijfswagenbestuurders

Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Inzicht in mobiliteitsoplossingen voor Belgische bedrijfswagenbestuurders

De Wilde, L., Rembert, D. B., Keserü, I., Macharis, C. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 26 Mar 2019, Companies and Sustainable Mobility, The company car debate and beyond.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearch

Original languageDutch
Title of host publicationCompanies and Sustainable Mobility, The company car debate and beyond
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2019

Maatregelen voor een duurzamere bedrijfsmobiliteit in het licht van globale trends

Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Maatregelen voor een duurzamere bedrijfsmobiliteit in het licht van globale trends

De Wilde, L., Keserü, I., Macharis, C., Wuytens, N. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 26 Mar 2019, Companies and Sustainable Mobility, The company car debate and beyond.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearch

Original languageDutch
Title of host publicationCompanies and Sustainable Mobility, The company car debate and beyond
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2019

Welke stakeholders verkiezen welke beleidsalternatieven voor de bedrijfswagen? Een MAMCA-analyse

Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Welke stakeholders verkiezen welke beleidsalternatieven voor de bedrijfswagen? Een MAMCA-analyse

Macharis, C., De Wilde, L., Te Boveldt, G. & Keserü, I., 26 Mar 2019, Companies and Sustainable Mobility, The company car debate and beyond.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearch

Original languageDutch
Title of host publicationCompanies and Sustainable Mobility, The company car debate and beyond
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2019

Analysis of the effect of applying external mechanical pressure on next generation silicon alloy lithium-ion cells

Sat, 23 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Analysis of the effect of applying external mechanical pressure on next generation silicon alloy lithium-ion cells

Berckmans, G. J., De Sutter, L., Marinaro, M., Smekens, J., Jaguemont, J., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., 23 Mar 2019, In : Electrochimica Acta. 306, C, p. 387-395

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-395
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume306
Issue numberC
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2019

Should I Stay or Should I Go? Assessing Intermodal and Synchromodal Resilience from a Decentralized Perspective

Sat, 23 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Should I Stay or Should I Go? Assessing Intermodal and Synchromodal Resilience from a Decentralized Perspective

Ambra, T., Caris, A. & Macharis, C., 23 Mar 2019, In : Sustainability. 11, 6, 24 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Synchromodal transport incorporates real-time events in a dynamic manner in order to facilitate the most suitable selection of modes, routes and handling points. Up until now, current assessments rely on analytical models. Most of these models average distances for barges and trains via route mapping platforms that provide realistic distances for road only. To reflect on real-world developments more accurately, new thinking and modelling approaches are necessary to bridge academic models with physical transport processes. This paper introduces a computational model which computes movements of agents in geographically referenced space. The model captures stochastic parallel processes for each mode, and simulates decentralized delivery performance of each order in terms of cost, time and emissions at an operational level. Furthermore, we study the routing of individual orders and their responsiveness to disruptions. Computational experiments are performed within a case study which concerns imports of retail goods by unimodal truck transport from France to Belgium. Our findings show that dynamic synchromodal solutions cope with disturbances better, but unnecessary deviations and pro-activeness can also lead to negative effects when compared to static intermodal solutions
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages24
JournalSustainability
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2019

Power quality improvement in smart grids using electric vehicles: A review

Tue, 19 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Power quality improvement in smart grids using electric vehicles: A review

Ahmadi, A., Tavakoli, A., Jamborsalamati, P., Rezaei, N., Miveh, M. R., Heidari Gandoman, F., Heidari, A. & Ali Esmaeel Nezhad, A., 19 Mar 2019, In : IET Electrical Systems in Transportation . 2019, p. 1-17

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

The global warming problem together with the environmental issues has already pushed the governments to
replace the conventional fossil-fuel vehicles with Electric Vehicles (EVs) having less emission. This replacement has led to
adding a huge number of EVs with the capability of connecting to the grid. It is noted that the presence of such vehicles
may introduce several challenges to the electrical grid due to their Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) capabilities. In between, the Power Quality (PQ) issues would be the main items in electrical grids highly impacted by such vehicles. Thus, this paper is devoted to investigating and reviewing the challenges brought to the electrical networks by EVs.
In this regard, the current and future conditions of EVs along with the recent research works made into the issue of EVs have been discussed in this paper. Accordingly, the problems due to the connection of EVs to the electrical grid have been discussed, and some solutions have been proposed to deal with these challenges.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Journal IET Electrical Systems in Transportation
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2019

Towards freight transport system unification: reviewing and combining the advancements in the physical internet and synchromodal transport research

Tue, 19 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Towards freight transport system unification: reviewing and combining the advancements in the physical internet and synchromodal transport research

Ambra, T., Caris, A. & Macharis, C., 19 Mar 2019, In : International Journal of Production Research. 57, 6, p. 1606-1623 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

To achieve socio-economic and environmental sustainability, utilization of existing capacities and assets has become a key challenge for the transportation sector. This challenge has been recognised by many scholars, policy makers and practitioners leading to a substantial body of new concepts and models. The rather parallel evolution of the Physical Internet (PI) and synchromodal transport presents an opportunity to improve the current unsustainable freight transportation, by inducing a positive modal shift from roads to rails and inland waterways, and improving service levels by better connecting production research with freight movement. This paper thus examines the synchromodal and PI state-of-the-art models together with their designs, methodologies and findings proposed in the scientific literature. The main objective is to assess and explore the correlations between these two concepts in order to understand how they can reinforce each other. Despite the integrated vision of the Alliance for Logistics Innovation through Collaboration in Europe, the findings of this paper yield no well-established interconnections in the scientific literature between PI and synchromodality as they both merely coexist in parallel and address different dimensions, scales and levels of abstraction. This paper thus identifies potential synergies, future research directions and critical questions to be considered by modellers, developers and policy makers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1606-1623
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Volume57
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2019

Optimal Design of Hybrid PV-Battery System in Residential Buildings: End-User Economics, and PV Penetration

Sun, 10 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Optimal Design of Hybrid PV-Battery System in Residential Buildings: End-User Economics, and PV Penetration

Worighi, I., Geury, T., Hegazy, O., El Baghdadi, M., Van Mierlo, J. & Maach, A., 10 Mar 2019, In : Applied Sciences. 9, 5, p. 1022-1032 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

This paper proposes an optimal design for hybrid grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs). A smart grid consisting of PV generation units, stationary Energy Storage Systems (ESSs), and domestic loads develops a multi-objective optimization algorithm. The optimization aims at minimizing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and the Voltage Deviation (VD) while considering the direct and indirect costs for the prosumer, and the system stability with regard to intermittent PV generation. The optimal solution for the optimization of the PV-battery system sizing with regard to economic viability and the stability of operation is found while using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) with the Pareto front. In addition, a fuzzy logic-based controller is developed to schedule the charging and discharging of batteries while considering the technical and economic aspects, such as battery State of Charge (SoC), voltage profile, and on/off-peak times to shave the consumption peaks. Thus, a hybrid approach that combines a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and the GA is developed for the optimal sizing of the combined Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) and ESSs, resulting in reductions of approximately 4% and 17% for the TCO and the VD, respectively. Furthermore, a sensitivity cost-effectiveness analysis of the complete system is conducted to highlight and assess the profitability and the high dependency of the optimal system configuration on battery prices
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1022-1032
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Sciences
Volume9
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2019

Status and future perspectives of reliability assessment for electric vehicles

Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Status and future perspectives of reliability assessment for electric vehicles

Heidari Gandoman, F., Ahmadi, A., Van Den Bossche, P., Van Mierlo, J., Omar, N., Ali Esmaeel Nezhad, A., Mavalizadeh, H. & Mayet, C., 1 Mar 2019, In : Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 183, p. 1-16 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Using clean energy sources has contributed to various industries, especially the automotive industry. In this regard, large companies have taken a significant step in the field of renewable energy by introducing Electric Vehicles (EVs). One of the main challenges in the EVs area is evaluating the reliability and safety of these vehicles. Thus, the concept of the reliability and safety of EV's components is considered a significant issue. In general, reliability and safety assessment of important electrical components of EVs, i.e. i) the battery pack, ii) power electronic converters, and iii) the electric motor, plays a significant role in the lifetime performance of EVs’ electrical system. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the reliability of EVs’ components from different points of view. Also, the challenges and future perspective of EVs relating to the reliability and safety, which need to be considered have been investigated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalReliability Engineering & System Safety
Volume183
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Getting citizens on board: new ways to involve citizens in transport planning: The LOOPER platform

Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Getting citizens on board: new ways to involve citizens in transport planning: The LOOPER platform

Keserü, I., Pappers, J. & Macharis, C., Mar 2019, Közlekedéstudományi Konferencia Győr: A jövő kihívásai: Alternatív - Autonóm - Kooperatív - Komparativ Mobilitás. Győr: Hungarian Scientific Association for Transport, p. 559-565 7 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

This paper presents the LOOPER participatory co-creation methodology and online platform bringing together citizens, stakeholders and policy-makers to iteratively learn how to address urban challenges (road safety, traffic calming, air and noise pollution). The platform enables transport planners to initiate bottom-up planning and design of new transport interventions. The process starts with the identification of the problem using participatory sensing (carrying out measurements with the citizens), co-design of the solutions, co-evaluation using the multi-actor multi-criteria analysis methodology and then co-implementing the solutions together with the citizens. In this paper, paper we propose participatory tools and methods that can be applied in participatory transport planning in order to identify the problems (participatory sensing), to collect ideas and solutions (online and off-line co-design) and evaluate the solutions (multi-actor multi-criteria analysis).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationKözlekedéstudományi Konferencia Győr
Subtitle of host publicationA jövő kihívásai: Alternatív - Autonóm - Kooperatív - Komparativ Mobilitás
Place of PublicationGyőr
PublisherHungarian Scientific Association for Transport
Pages559-565
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9789638121868
ISBN (Print)9789638121851
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019
EventConference on Transport Sciences: Challenges of the future: Alternative - Autonomous - Cooperative - Comparative Mobility - Gyor, Hungary
Duration: 21 Mar 201922 Mar 2019

Conference

ConferenceConference on Transport Sciences
CountryHungary
CityGyor
Period21/03/1922/03/19

Eco-Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles : Influence of Manufacturing Country and Commodity Prices on GHG Emissions and Costs

Tue, 19 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Eco-Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles : Influence of Manufacturing Country and Commodity Prices on GHG Emissions and Costs

Philippot, M., Alvarez, G., Ayerbe, E., Van Mierlo, J. & Messagie, M., 19 Feb 2019, In : Batteries. 5, 1, 17 p., 23.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Lithium-ion battery packs inside electric vehicles represents a high share of the final price. Nevertheless, with technology advances and the growth of the market, the price of the battery is getting more competitive. The greenhouse gas emissions and the battery cost have been studied previously, but coherent boundaries between environmental and economic assessments are needed to assess the eco-efficiency of batteries. In this research, a detailed study is presented, providing an environmental and economic assessment of the manufacturing of one specific lithium-ion battery chemistry. The relevance of parameters is pointed out, including the manufacturing place, the production volume, the commodity prices, and the energy density. The inventory is obtained by dismantling commercial cells. The correlation between the battery cost and the commodity price is much lower than the correlation between the battery cost and the production volume. The developed life cycle assessment concludes that the electricity mix that is used to power the battery factory is a key parameter for the impact of the battery manufacturing on climate change. To improve the battery manufacturing eco-efficiency, a high production capacity and an electricity mix with low carbon intensity are suggested. Optimizing the process by reducing the electricity consumption during the manufacturing is also suggested, and combined with higher pack energy density, the impact on climate change of the pack manufacturing is as low as 39.5 kg CO2 eq/kWh.
Original languageEnglish
Article number23
Number of pages17
JournalBatteries
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2019

Homo Roboticus: 30 vragen en antwoorden over mens, robot & artificiële intelligentie

Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Zijn robots slimmer dan mensen? Krijg je een robot als collega? Word jij halsoverkop verliefd op een robot? Krijgt de robot een license to kill? Is de robot wel een goede chirurg? Wat als atleten robots worden? Laat je een robot jouw grootmoeder in bed stoppen? Zullen huishoudrobots je vuile was niet buiten hangen?

Spitstechnologie doet onze leefwereld in sneltempo evolueren. De combinatie van robotica en artificiële intelligentie boort een schijnbaar eindeloos aanbod van nieuwe mogelijkheden aan, van zelfrijdende auto’s tot en met seksrobots en killerbots. Net zoals de Industriële Revolutie meer dan 250 jaar geleden zal ook deze technologische revolutie onze samenleving drastisch veranderen.

Hoe past de mens in deze technologische revolutie? Meer dan vijftig professoren en onderzoekers zijn met die vraag aan de slag gegaan en hebben bestudeerd hoe technologie verder ten dienste van de mens kan evolueren. Het boek Homo Roboticus bundelt hun antwoorden en brengt een inclusieve robotagenda met aanbevelingen voor heden en toekomst.
Homo Roboticus is het werk van VUB-denktank POINcaré en kwam tot stand onder leiding van An Jacobs (SMIT - imec VUB), Michel Maus (VUB – Bloomlaw), Romain Meeusen (VUB), Lynn Tytgat (weKONEKT.Brussels) en Bram Vanderborght (Brubotics VUB).

Meer info vindt u op www.homo-roboticus.be
Original languageDutch
PublisherASP
Number of pages297
ISBN (Print)9789057188503
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2019

MAMCA game

Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

MAMCA game

Macharis, C., 7 Feb 2019.

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferencePosterResearch

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2019
EventDag van de onderwijsinnovatie - Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
Duration: 7 Feb 20197 Feb 2019
http://www.vub.ac.be/onderwijs/dag-van-de-onderwijsinnovatie

Other

OtherDag van de onderwijsinnovatie
CountryBelgium
CityBrussels
Period7/02/197/02/19
Internet address

City logistics in an omnichannel environment. The case of Brussels

Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

City logistics in an omnichannel environment. The case of Brussels

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S. & Macharis, C., 2 Feb 2019, In : Case Studies on Transport Policy.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Consumers live in an omnichannel environment, in which they use both online and offline channels for their shopping activities. The result is an increase in parcels shipped to consumers’ homes, challenging urban freight systems in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Many measures exist, that aim to optimise and improve activities of logistics service providers in urban areas. However, research on the parcel market and its actors is limited, so it is unclear how parcel distribution is organised and which city logistics measures are (not) adopted.
This information is needed to re-think parcel distribution and support policy-making that sustains and improves urban sustainability and quality of life. Therefore, we carried out case-study research with focus on Brussels,
Belgium’s largest city and capital. Findings demonstrate that logistics service providers are focused on measures that improve distribution efficiency, which is determined by parcel volume, stop density, delivery failure and urban regulation. To this end, pick-up points and lockers and tools to affect receiver behaviour are implemented most. Generally, Brussels’ parcel distribution market is dominated by conventional vehicles and traditional modes of operation, but regulations and policies are advancing the use of micro-hubs in combination with cargobikes.
Local authorities can facilitate adoption of city logistics measures for parcel distribution by cooperating and exchanging information with the private sector and by developing a harmonised, long-term vision on freight transport policy across cities and regions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2019

Logistics outsourcing in omnichannel retail: State of practice and service recommendations

Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Logistics outsourcing in omnichannel retail: State of practice and service recommendations

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S., Macharis, C., Schoutteet, P. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2 Feb 2019, In : International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify in what way logistics service providers are involved in the logistics operations of omnichannel retailers. Given the importance of logistics in omnichannel retail and the complexities that it brings forth, it is unclear if the current tendency towards logistics outsourcing continues, and how logistics service providers should adapt to remain relevant in the omnichannel retail environment.
Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on both desk and field research. The authors analysed the scientific information available on omnichannel retail logistics and conducted semi-structured expert interviews with food and non-food retailers that adopt an omnichannel model.
Findings – The research demonstrates distinct differences between food and non-food retailers. While food retailers are inclined to organise fulfilment and last mile activities in-house, non-food retailers partner closely with logistics service providers. Nonetheless, the store network of non-food retailers is attracting a growing part of logistics activities, which retailers are building themselves. To sustain their relevance in the omnichannel environment and strengthen their position for the future, the authors created a competency recommendation framework for logistics service providers, in which service differentiation is proposed as a viable direction for growth.
Research limitations/implications – The research is based on insights from retailers based in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium) and requires further and wider testing in other contexts and geographical areas.
Practical implications – The findings have strategic importance for retailers that are developing an omnichannel retail model and logistics service providers that (aim to) serve clients and operate activities within the retail sector.
Originality/value – The research provides a holistic view of logistics in omnichannel retail by identifying insourcing and outsourcing mechanisms and developing competency recommendations to fulfilment, internal transport and last mile transport in omnichannel retail
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2019

Towards a realistic design of hybrid micro-grid systems based on double auction markets

Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Towards a realistic design of hybrid micro-grid systems based on double auction markets

Worighi, I., Hegazy, O., Van Mierlo, J. & Maach, A., 1 Feb 2019, In : Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing . 912, 2, p. 81-96 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) are playing an important role in reducing carbon emissions of conventional fossil fuel, greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Moreover, they have a potential benefit of reducing energy cost and providing power to meet the energy demand. Nevertheless, grid stability is criticized via intermittent and non-controllable behavior of RESs. In this regards, coupling power generation units such as solar and wind with Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) is the most likely solution to pave the way for the outstanding transition from conventional power system to smart grid infrastructure. Nonetheless, this infrastructure requires models and controls for the implementation of next-generation grid architecture. Therefore, a virtualization of the above infrastructure could be overriding and cost-effective for implementation phase. In that regard, the present research proposes a hybrid micro-grid model including wind and solar energy, loads, a double auction market and ESSs. The proposed model is tested and validated using virtualization of the above proposed grid structure. The implementation of the virtualized system enhances the role of ESSs leading the power system to be stable. ESSs allow accumulating the surplus energy for later use in those periods in which wind and solar contribute to overproduction. Furthermore, it enables delivering back the extra energy in peak periods. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model and highlight the role of ESSs in stabilization. As a result, the proposed model can be used to test other scenarios such as implementation of controls and smart appliances of the new and improved power system augmented with RESs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-96
Number of pages16
JournalAdvances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
Volume912
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

The “next day, free delivery” myth unravelled: Possibilities for sustainable last mile transport in an omnichannel environment

Mon, 14 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The “next day, free delivery” myth unravelled: Possibilities for sustainable last mile transport in an omnichannel environment

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S. & Macharis, C., 14 Jan 2019, In : International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. 47, 1, p. 39-54 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Purpose: Currently, it is unclear how omnichannel retailers can create a last mile offer that is both attractive and sustainable from an economic and environmental point of view. The purpose of this paper is to explore to which extent consumers are willing to adopt last mile options that are more sustainable and how these options should be composed to remain attractive. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, the authors surveyed a representative sample of Belgian consumers, using choice-based conjoint experiments, and analysed their preferences structures. Findings: Consumers’ preference goes out to free, next day delivery to an address of choice, on regular office hours during the week. However, when free delivery and return are offered, consumers are willing to collect their orders themselves or wait longer for their orders to arrive. Practical implications: The research findings are important for retailers that (plan to) operate an omnichannel model. For omnichannel retailers with a dense store network, the results indicate that consumers accept their store network as pick-up and return locations, allowing retailers to create a more efficient and sustainable supply chain in which their online and offline activities can be combined. Originality/value: The research findings contribute to current literature and practice by combining “planet” and “profit” components of sustainability in last mile transport and applying it in the novel omnichannel environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-54
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Retail and Distribution Management
Volume47
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2019

The 5E model of environmental engagement: Bringing sustainability change to higher education through positive psychology

Sat, 05 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The 5E model of environmental engagement: Bringing sustainability change to higher education through positive psychology

Macharis, C. & Kerret, D., 5 Jan 2019, In : Sustainability (Switzerland). 11, 1, 13 p., 241.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract: What is the role of universities in advancing sustainability? This paper delineates a unique program for promoting sustainability that was applied in Vrije Universiteit Brussels (VUB). The unique characteristics of the program are described in light of the positive sustainability framework. The five components of the program are designed to promote sustainable behavior of participants, through promoting goal-oriented hope: setting a goal; believing that one can successfully achieve the chosen goal (agency thinking); viewing the potential paths for achieving the goal (pathway thinking); and trusting other members of society to follow the same desired goal (social trust). The five components of the program are designed to jointly raise all the elements of hope. It starts with goal setting (estimate), which is aimed at evaluating the impact of the university on the physical environment. Secondly, the entire community of the university should be engaged in achieving the desired goal. The third component of the method is education about the potential options and actions for achieving the designed goal. Then, enabling the achievement of the goal takes place (meaning making it easy). Lastly, participants should be encouraged to pursue the goal by positive rewarding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number241
Number of pages13
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2019

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization and parameterization of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide pouch cells: dependency analysis of temperature and state of charge

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Characterizing lithium-ion batteries is of prime importance as it helps in understanding the safety, working temperature, voltage range, and power capabilities. Based on these results, we can then choose operating conditions which include safety protocols, application, and working environment. In this study, EIS studies of commercially available 20-Ah lithium-ion battery and a 28- Ah prototype cell with nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC)/graphite chemistry are used to determine the contribution of temperature and state of charge (SoC) towards the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These cells are manufactured for electric vehicle (EV) application. The electrode structure, particle size, stacking of the electrodes, and other entities for both the cells are provided to compare the similarities and differences between both the cells. Equivalent circuit modeling is used to analyze and comprehend the variation in impedance spectrum obtained for both the cells. It is observed that the ohmic resistance varies with both temperature and SoC and the variation with temperature is more significant for the prototype cell. The prototype cell showed better charge-transfer characteristics at lower temperatures when compared to the commercial cell.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-123
Number of pages13
JournalIonics
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Building Scenarios for the Future of Transport in Europe: The Mobility4EU Approach

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Building Scenarios for the Future of Transport in Europe: The Mobility4EU Approach

Keserü, I., Coosemans, T. & Macharis, C., 2019, Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe: Challenges, Solutions and Collaborations. Muller, B. & Meyer, G. (eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing, p. 15-30 (Lecture Notes in Mobility).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

This paper outlines the scenario-building approach of the Mobility4EU project that aims to create a vision and action plan for mobility and transport in 2030. Scenario building is the first step of the Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis (MAMCA), the methodology used to conduct a broad stakeholder consultation. To emphasize the participative nature of the scenario building, the scenarios were created using the intuitive logics technique and participatory workshops. Each scenario describes future trends and technological, organisational or policy-related solutions. Based on a survey of stakeholders, “policy & legislative framework” and “lifestyle and user behaviour” emerged as pivotal uncertainties to steer the scenario building. They provided the basis for the development of four scenarios: Data World, Digital Nomads, Slow is Beautiful, and Minimum Carbon. The paper describes the trends and solutions that comprise these scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTowards User-Centric Transport in Europe
Subtitle of host publicationChallenges, Solutions and Collaborations
EditorsBeate Muller, Gereon Meyer
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Pages15-30
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-99756-8
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-99755-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mobility
PublisherSpringer International

Can speed pedelecs really fulfil the mobility needs of daily commuters?

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Can speed pedelecs really fulfil the mobility needs of daily commuters?

Van Den Steen, N., Cappelle, J. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2019, (Unpublished).

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferenceUnpublished abstractResearch

Considering the problems Belgium faces regarding air quality and road congestion, a switch from conventional cars to battery electric cars is a step forward, but only part of the solution. This is also acknowledged by the European Commission, who’s advice is to introduce disincentives for car use and by reducing car use. The switch should come along with a transition to light electric vehicles (LEVs). A promising LEV for the Flemish commuter is the speed pedelec. This paper discusses the results of the 365SNEL-project, commissioned by the Flemish department of Environment as part of the “Clean Power for Transport” action plan. In this project at least 10 speed pedelecs from different manufacturers will be deployed in several companies for one year. Covering every province in Flanders, the project will provide at least 120 test users the opportunity to test the speed pedelecs for 3 weeks at a time. 365SNEL has the purpose of investigating the potential of the speed pedelec, mapping user’s needs, defining appropriate accessories and designing a quality framework to determine whether the speed pedelec can really fulfil the mobility needs of daily commuters. In this paper a descriptive analysis is given of the qualitative data as a result of several focus groups during the testing period of 1 year, as well as a descriptive analysis of the quantitative data collected through the surveys. This is compared to the objective measurements in the form of logging of commuting rides, linked to a quality framework.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusUnpublished - 2019
EventEVS32 - lyon, France
Duration: 19 May 201922 May 2019

Conference

ConferenceEVS32
CountryFrance
Citylyon
Period19/05/1922/05/19

Comparison of the contribution of smart charging, V2G and energy demand reduction to the energy autonomy of a Belgian city depot

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Comparison of the contribution of smart charging, V2G and energy demand reduction to the energy autonomy of a Belgian city depot

Rotthier, B., Leenders, R., Van Den Steen, N., Huyck, B. & Cappelle, J., 2019, (Unpublished).

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferenceUnpublished paperResearch

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusUnpublished - 2019
EventEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018 - kobe , Japan
Duration: 1 Oct 20183 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018
CountryJapan
Citykobe
Period1/10/183/10/18

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SILICON ALLOY BASED LITHIUM-ION BATTERY FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SILICON ALLOY BASED LITHIUM-ION BATTERY FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Philippot, M., Smekens, J., Van Mierlo, J. & Messagie, M., 2019, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment. WIT Press, p. 129-139 11 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) are seen as a solution for cleaner mobility, due to their ability to reduce air emissions in cities. Batteries are key components that have a large influence on performances of EVs. Energy density is an important requirement from automotive industry, therefore the goal of this study is to assess the impact on climate change of a traction battery with new cells containing a high voltage NMC cathode and silicon alloy based anode. Silicon is a promising material for traction batteries, considering its high energy density. The scope of the paper is the manufacturing. This study uses the life cycle assessment method. Setting coherent system boundaries and functional unit is essential and literature regarding these choices is reviewed. Site-specific data from industrial partners is collected as much as possible. The uncertainty of the results is then assessed thanks to a Monte Carlo simulation.
The main contributor to climate change is cell manufacturing due to the use of fossil resources for electricity generation. The next big contributor is the cathode paste, half of the cathode paste emissions occurring in the nickel sulphate manufacturing. Note that nickel sulphate is the main precursor in the cathode. Substrates, electrolyte and separator do not represent high shares of emissions, even though they represent almost 40% of the cell mass.
To evaluate the robustness of the conclusions, a sensitivity analysis is performed. Today, most of batteries are manufactured in China and the European Commission is pushing toward a more local production. The sensitivity of the results is tested by replacing the original mix by the Chinese average mix and by renewable energy sources. In conclusion, manufacturing in Europe can reduce the impact on climate change and using hydropower and/or photovoltaic panels can even improve the environmental performances of manufacturing of this battery.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWIT Transactions on The Built Environment
PublisherWIT Press
Pages129-139
Number of pages11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event24th International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment - Sevilla, Spain
Duration: 19 Sep 201821 Sep 2018

Conference

Conference24th International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment
CountrySpain
CitySevilla
Period19/09/1821/09/18

Multi-actor multi-criteria analysis as a tool to involve urban logistics stakeholders

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Multi-actor multi-criteria analysis as a tool to involve urban logistics stakeholders

Macharis, C., Kin, B. & Lebeau, P., 2019, Urban logistics: Management, policy and innovation in a rapidly changing environment. Browne, M., Behrends, S., Woxenius, J., Giuliano, G. & Holguin-Veras, J. (eds.). London: Kogan Page, p. 274-292

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUrban logistics
Subtitle of host publicationManagement, policy and innovation in a rapidly changing environment
EditorsMichael Browne, Sonke Behrends, Johan Woxenius, Genevieve Giuliano, Jose Holguin-Veras
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherKogan Page
Chapter13
Pages274-292
ISBN (Electronic)978-0749478711
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Should I Stay or Should I Go? Assessing Intermodal and Synchromodal Resilience from a Decentralized Perspective

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Should I Stay or Should I Go? Assessing Intermodal and Synchromodal Resilience from a Decentralized Perspective

Ambra, T., Caris, A. & Macharis, C., 2019, ORBEL 33: 33rd annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society. p. 77-77 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingMeeting abstract (Book)Research

The paper concerns routing of individual orders and their responsiveness to disruptions. Computational experiments are performed in a case study which relates to imports of retail goods by unimodal truck transport from France to Belgium. Our findings show that dynamic synchromodal solutions cope with disturbances better, but unnecessary deviations and pro-activeness can also lead to negative effects when compared to static intermodal solutions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationORBEL 33
Subtitle of host publication33rd annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society
Pages77-77
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventORBEL33: 33th annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society - Hasselt, Belgium
Duration: 7 Feb 20198 Feb 2019
https://www.orbel.be/orbel33/

Conference

ConferenceORBEL33: 33th annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society
CountryBelgium
CityHasselt
Period7/02/198/02/19
Internet address

Societal Trends Influencing Mobility and Logistics in Europe: A Comprehensive Analysis

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Societal Trends Influencing Mobility and Logistics in Europe: A Comprehensive Analysis

L’Hostis, A., Chalkia, E., de la Cruz, M. T., Müller, B. & Keserü, I., 2019, Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe: Challenges, Solutions and Collaborations. Cham: Springer International Publishing, p. 31-49 (Lecture Notes in Mobility).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

The objective of this paper is to establish a comprehensive view of societal
trends that have an impact on mobility and logistics in the future. Based on a review of scientific literature, the output of European research projects and reports from consultancies, the result of this investigation provides a broad and comprehensive set of factors that influence, and will influence in the future, mobility and logistics. The set is composed of 29 trends organised under 9 larger categories covering economic issues, societal issues, urbanisation, the environment, the digital society, new business models, safety, security and the legislative framework. The present analysis has greatly benefited from the concept of liquid modernity developed by Bauman that value of this contribution is its systematic approach allowing to describe this complex topic in an exhaustive manner while focussing on links and dependencies enabled a broad and complete view on the dynamics of society and mobility. It allows describing linkages between social and economic trends, and between society and technology, especially information and communication technology. Thus, the added value of this contribution is its systematic approach allowing to describe this complex topic in an exhaustive manner while focussing on links and dependencies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTowards User-Centric Transport in Europe
Subtitle of host publicationChallenges, Solutions and Collaborations
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Pages31-49
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-99756-8
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-99755-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mobility
PublisherSpringer International

The Future of Freight Transport

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The Future of Freight Transport

Macharis, C. & Nocera, S., 2019, In : European Transport Research Review.

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialResearch

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Transport Research Review
Publication statusPublished - 2019

The role of V2G enabled EVs in the Wind curtailment and DSO Services

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The role of V2G enabled EVs in the Wind curtailment and DSO Services

Roncancio Marin, J., Crispeels, T., Messagie, M. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2019, (Unpublished) Electric Vehicle Symposium Proceedings 2019 .

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

Research on sustainability highlights the use of environmentally friendly technologies, especially for the industrial and automotive sectors, to reduce the environmental impact of future developments. The automotive industry currently seeks to abandon its dependence on fossil fuel through the inclusion of electric vehicles. Despite being a more sustainable technology - at least regarding the considerable reduction in the
emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere - its adoption by consumers leads to an increase in the energy demand and puts additional strain on the electricity grid. The electric vehicle adoption by citizens leads to problems such as the increase in peak loads and interruptions in the energy supply. Such problems can be
solved or prevented whenever electricity companies have energy storage systems that can be used to stabilize the electricity grid or to mitigate the sudden cuts in the supply. Within electric vehicles, there exists V2G (Vehicle to Grid) technology which enables EVs in returning power to the electricity grid by using bidirectional charging systems. In this paper, we want to evaluate the extent in which V2G technology could serve as a solution to the challenges faced by energy companies as a result of the transition from traditional mobility to electric mobility. We use Belgium as a case study and project the energy consumption, the number
of electric vehicles in the fleet (including BEV - PHEV), as well as the effects on the electricity grid due to the inclusion of V2G enabled vehicles in the Belgian car fleet. In this paper, we calculate the value arising from this technological change for two specific scenarios: the use of V2G for (1) wind energy curtailment
and (2) DSO services.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectric Vehicle Symposium Proceedings 2019
Publication statusUnpublished - 2019
EventElectric Vehicle Symposium 2019 - Lyon, France
Duration: 19 May 201922 May 2019

Other

OtherElectric Vehicle Symposium 2019
CountryFrance
CityLyon
Period19/05/1922/05/19

The value of V2G enabled Electric Vehicles towards P2P business models

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The value of V2G enabled Electric Vehicles towards P2P business models

Roncancio Marin, J., Crispeels, T., Messagie, M. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2019, (In preparation).

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferenceUnpublished abstractResearch

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusIn preparation - 2019

Using co-creation methods to solve mobility problems in Brussels

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Using co-creation methods to solve mobility problems in Brussels

Pappers, J., Keserü, I. & Macharis, C., 2019, Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society. Schrenk, M., Popovich, V., Zeile, P., Elisei, P. & Beyer, C. (eds.). p. 993-999 7 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

In recent years, urban problems such as congestion and traffic safety have jumped to the top of the political agenda in many European cities. At the same time, governments are increasingly shying away from formal consultation methods to using more participatory methods to find solutions to urban problems. In the Brussels LOOPER Living Lab, bottom-up co-creation methods are tested in a full planning cycle, from problem identification to co-design and evaluation of alternative solutions to implementation and monitoring of these solutions. The research takes place within LOOPER (Learning Loops in the Public Realm), a JPI Europe funded research project with Living Labs running in Brussels, Manchester and Verona. The LOOPER project seeks to improve co-creation processes in urban governance and planning by building a participatory co-creation methodology and platform to demonstrate ‘learning loops’ i.e. new ways of decision-making, which bring together citizens, stakeholders, researchers and policy-makers to address urban challenges. In Brussels, offline and online co-creation methods have been used to define a problem (traffic safety), collect data on this problem, co-design solutions that solve this problem, evaluate the stakeholder support for these solutions, and implement a solution. This paper discusses how a combination of co-creation tools was used to contribute to a better understanding of traffic safety issues, led to co-designed alternatives and finally implementation overarching the full planning cycle in Brussels. Furthermore, the paper discusses how online and offline tools have been combined in the Living Lab.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 24th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society
EditorsManfred Schrenk, Vassily Popovich, Peter Zeile, Pietro Elisei, Clemens Beyer
Pages993-999
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event24th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
Duration: 2 Apr 20194 Apr 2019
Conference number: 24
https://conference.corp.at/

Conference

Conference24th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society
Abbreviated titleREAL CORP
CountryGermany
CityKarlsruhe
Period2/04/194/04/19
Internet address

Value aspects of V2G enabled Electric vehicles

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Value aspects of V2G enabled Electric vehicles

Roncancio Marin, J., Crispeels, T., Messagie, M. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2019, (Unpublished) ENGIE - Report on V2G.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearch

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationENGIE - Report on V2G
Publication statusUnpublished - 2019

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Li, Y., Zou, C., Berecibar, M., Chan, J. C. W., Nanini-Maury, E., Van Den Bossche, P., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., 15 Dec 2018, In : Applied Energy. 232, p. 197-210 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Machine-learning based methods have been widely used for battery health state monitoring. However, the existing studies require sophisticated data processing for feature extraction, thereby complicating the implementation in battery management systems. This paper proposes a machine-learning technique, random forest regression, for battery capacity estimation. The proposed technique is able to learn the dependency of the battery capacity on the features that are extracted from the charging voltage and capacity measurements. The random forest regression is solely based on signals, such as the measured current, voltage and time, that are available onboard during typical battery operation. The collected raw data can be directly fed into the trained model without any pre-processing, leading to a low computational cost. The incremental capacity analysis is employed for the feature selection. The developed method is applied and validated on lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries with different ageing patterns. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is able to evaluate the health states of different batteries under varied cycling conditions with a root-mean-square error of less than 1.3% and a low computational requirement. Therefore, the proposed method is promising for online battery capacity estimation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-210
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Energy
Volume232
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2018

Monitoring Urban Freight Transport based on GPS Trajectories of Heavy-Goods Vehicles

Fri, 14 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Monitoring Urban Freight Transport based on GPS Trajectories of Heavy-Goods Vehicles

Hadavi, S., Verlinde, S., Verbeke, W., Macharis, C. & Guns, M., 14 Dec 2018, In : IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. 2018, p. 1-12

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

For designing transport policy measures, it is crucial to base decisions on evidence-based insights regarding transport flows and behavior. This paper introduces practical indicators for urban transport, which can be derived from large collections of GPS trajectories of heavy-goods vehicles. The indicators framework enables cities, municipalities, and regions to gain insights into the urban transport activities in their region. We motivate our indicators based on the objectives and action plans described in the strategic plan for goods traffic of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. We provide a case study on data collected from the on-board units of heavy-goods vehicles, which became mandatory in Belgium as part of its dynamic road-pricing scheme in 2016. This paper contributes to the exciting new capabilities that are obtained through GPS trajectories data and the possibilities this offers for smart cities at the tactical, operational, and strategic level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Volume2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2018

Improving policy support in city logistics: The contributions of a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis

Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Improving policy support in city logistics: The contributions of a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis

Lebeau, P., Macharis, C., Van Mierlo, J. & Janjevic, M., Dec 2018, In : Case Studies on Transport Policy. 6, 4, p. 554-563 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A range of solutions have been developed to improve the sustainability of city logistics. However, their implementations are sometimes failing. Involving stakeholders in the decision process is increasingly recognised to be a necessity to guarantee the adoption of these solutions by the sector and ensure their successful implementation. The objective of the paper is therefore to contribute to the development of a bottom-up approach where stakeholders are involved in the evaluation and selection of more sustainable strategies for city logistics. The authors present the MAMCA as a method which structures the consultation process of stakeholders. This approach was tested in a workshop in Brussels and the paper uses that consultation process as an illustration of the methodology. That application demonstrated the benefits of the MAMCA to ensure a productive workshop. The methodology allows the authorities to especially identify the priorities of the stakeholders in city logistics, to guide the discussion towards a consensus and to provide inputs for an eventual adaptation of the strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)554-563
Number of pages10
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Volume6
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

Thermal Effect of Fast-Charging Profiles on Lithium-Ion Batteries

Tue, 27 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Thermal Effect of Fast-Charging Profiles on Lithium-Ion Batteries

Jaguemont, J., Abdel-Monem, M., Omar, N., Van Mierlo, J. & Van Den Bossche, P., 27 Nov 2018, ICEMS 2018 - 2018 21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 2127-2132 6 p. 8549461

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

In this paper, the effect of fast-charging technics on thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries is investigated. Fast-charging tests involve typically high-current profiles which leads to high cell temperature increase, and thus in some cases thermal runaways. Most papers in literature present the fast-charging technic from an electrical point-of-view. The thermal aspect is often disregarded. Therefore, two charging profiles that are commonly used for fast-charging applications are applied on two lithium-ion chemistries: lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium titanate (LTO). Thermal pictures of the cells during the profile are recorded to witness the temperature distribution. In addition, to enlarge the study scope, three environmental temperatures are tested: 25°C, 10°C and 45°C.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationICEMS 2018 - 2018 21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages2127-2132
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9788986510201
ISBN (Print)9788986510201
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2018
Event21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ICEMS 2018 - Jeju, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 7 Oct 201810 Oct 2018

Conference

Conference21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ICEMS 2018
CountryKorea, Republic of
CityJeju
Period7/10/1810/10/18

Citizen observatory for mobility: a conceptual framework

Mon, 05 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Citizen observatory for mobility: a conceptual framework

Keserü, I., Wuytens, N. & Macharis, C., 5 Nov 2018, In : Transport Reviews. 25 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Citizen observatories that incorporate participatory sensing can complement traditional and automated data collection methods for mobility planning and increase the level of participation of citizens in transport planning. The process of developing such an online environment is not only time-consuming and costly, but it would also require an extensive knowledge of computer programming. This is one of the main barriers to the proliferation of citizen observatories. Therefore, this paper develops a conceptual framework of a citizen observatory platform that does not require special skills or resources. It would enable the collection, analysis and exchange of quantitative and qualitative mobility-related data by citizens. We have reviewed 69 participatory sensing applications in the field of mobility to derive the essential building stones of such an observatory. We identified the requirements considering eight criteria: campaign management, objective, context, data types, sensing technology, motivation of data collectors, validation and representativeness, visualisation and reporting. Some concerns regarding representativeness of data, motivation of data collectors, accuracy of sensors and validated algorithms for indicators are also raised.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages25
JournalTransport Reviews
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Nov 2018

Comprehensive Aging Analysis of Volumetric Constrained Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells with High Concentration Silicon-Alloy Anodes

Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Comprehensive Aging Analysis of Volumetric Constrained Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells with High Concentration Silicon-Alloy Anodes

De Sutter, L., Berckmans, G. J., Marinaro, M., Smekens, J., Firouz, Y., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., Nov 2018, In : Energies. 11, 11, 21 p., en11112948.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

In this research, twenty-four high capacity (1360 mAh) NMC622/Si-alloy Li-ion full pouch cells with high silicon-alloy content (55%) are cycle aged under seven different cycling conditions to study the effect of different stressors on the cycle life of Si-anode full cells, among which are the effect of ambient temperature, Depth of Discharge (DoD) and the discharge current. The cells are volumetrically constrained at an optimal initial pressure to improve their cycle life, energy and power capabilities. Furthermore, the innovative test setup allows measuring the developed pressure as a result of repeated (de-)lithiation during battery cycling. This uniquely vast testing campaign on Si-anode full cells allows us to study and quantify independently the influence of different stress factors on their cycle life for the first time, as well as to develop a new capacity fade model based on an observed linear relationship between capacity retention and total discharge capacity throughput.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberen11112948
Number of pages21
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018

Electrical Characterization and Micro X-ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Next-Generation Silicon Alloy Lithium-Ion Cells

Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Electrical Characterization and Micro X-ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Next-Generation Silicon Alloy Lithium-Ion Cells

Berckmans, G. J., De Sutter, L., Kersys, A., Kriston, A., Marinaro, M., Kasper, M., Axmann, P., Smekens, J., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M., Pfrang, A., Jaguemont, J., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., 19 Oct 2018, In : World Electric Vehicle Journal. 9, 3, p. 1-14 14 p., 43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

This study analyzed a prototype of a pouch cell containing silicon alloy anodes with the potential to significantly increase the energy density, resulting in improved autonomy for electric vehicles. An electrical characterization campaign was performed, resulting in three main observations. Firstly, measurements showed a high energy density, although a high lower cutoff voltage (3.0 V) was used due to the prototypical nature of the cells. Further optimization would allow a decrease of the lower cutoff voltage, resulting in an even higher energy density. Secondly, a large open-circuit voltage hysteresis was observed, increasing the complexity for equivalent circuit models. Thirdly, ballooning of the pouch cell was observed, most likely caused by gas formation. This leads to a loss of active surface area, significantly reducing the cell’s capacity. This third observation was more thoroughly investigated by 3D computed tomography, which showed mechanical deformation of the layers. An extensive literature review revealed that the addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte enhances the cycling stability of silicon alloy batteries but leads to the production of CO 2 as a side reaction. Furthermore, the usage of external pressure was proposed and validated as a methodology to reduce the production of CO 2 while improving the cells’ performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number43
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2018

Performance Evaluation of a PID-Controlled Synchronous Buck Converter Based Battery Charging Controller for Solar-Powered Lighting System in a Fishing Trawler

Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Performance Evaluation of a PID-Controlled Synchronous Buck Converter Based Battery Charging Controller for Solar-Powered Lighting System in a Fishing Trawler

Chakraborty, S., Hasan, M. M., Worighi, I., Hegazy, O. & Razzak, M. A., 11 Oct 2018, In : Energies. 11, 10, 26 p., 2722.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID)-controlled synchronous buck converter (SBC)-based battery charging system was designed to charge a lead-acid cell battery using commercially available Photovoltaic (PV) panel. The proposed system was installed aboard a fishing trawler to power its electrical system replacing the conventional system, which uses a diesel generator and a few kerosene lamps for lighting purposes. A PID algorithm instead of traditional Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used in the proposed system since the charging process of the battery requires a maximum current instead of maximum power. The proposed control algorithm is compared with the popular MPPT technique Perturb and Observation (P&O) to validate its dynamic performance at different solar irradiance levels using MATLAB/Simulink®. The simulation and the experimental results have demonstrated that the dynamic response of the proposed algorithm is significantly improved by considering higher charging current, the capability to charge the battery at low irradiance, high stability, and lower cost. Finally, a successful 15-day field trial was conducted at sea using the proposed system, and a maximum charging current output of 6.5 A was achieved by the SBC during noon time; it was sufficient to charge a 12 V, 100 Ah battery, with a state of charge (SoC) of 33%, at a voltage charging rate of +0.3 V/h.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2722
Number of pages26
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2018

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Zhu, X., Fernández Macía, L., Jaguemont, J., de Hoog, J., Nikolian, A., Omar, N. & Hubin, A., 10 Oct 2018, In : Electrochimica Acta. 287, p. 10-20 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A comprehensive electrochemical impedance study is conducted on LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrode material as a function of state-of-charge and aging. Electrodes are harvested from four commercial batteries with different state-of-health conditions. Odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the symmetric cell approach are applied in this work in order to obtain reliable impedance results. An equivalent electrical circuit model is constructed. The parameters related to the generalized finite-space Warburg element, the CPE element and the charge transfer resistance are further interpreted. Valuable information is obtained and closely linked to the physical phenomena. The charge transfer resistance has been proved to be the most reliable parameter for the estimation of state-of-health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-20
Number of pages11
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume287
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2018

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Zhu, X., Fernandez Macia, L., Jaguemont, J., De Hoog, J., Nikolian, A., Omar, N. & Hubin, A., 10 Oct 2018, In : Electrochimica Acta. 287, p. 10-20 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A comprehensive electrochemical impedance study is conducted on LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrode material as a function of state-of-charge and aging. Electrodes are harvested from four commercial batteries with different state-of-health conditions. Odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the symmetric cell approach are applied in this work in order to obtain reliable impedance results. An equivalent electrical circuit model is constructed. The parameters related to the generalized finite-space Warburg element, the CPE element and the charge transfer resistance are further interpreted. Valuable information is obtained and closely linked to the physical phenomena. The charge transfer resistance has been proved to be the most reliable parameter for the estimation of state-of-health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-20
Number of pages11
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume287
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2018

Improved Voltage Unbalance and Harmonics Compensation Control Strategy for an Isolated Microgrid

Sun, 07 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Improved Voltage Unbalance and Harmonics Compensation Control Strategy for an Isolated Microgrid

Hadidian Moghaddam, M. J., Kalam, A., Reza Miveh, M., Naderipour, A., Heidari Gandoman, F., Ghadimi, A. A. & Malek, Z. A., 7 Oct 2018, In : Energies. 11, 10, p. 1-26 26 p., 2688.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

This paper suggests an enhanced control scheme for a four-leg battery energy storage systems (BESS) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions operating in the isolated microgrid. Simplicity, tiny steady-state error, fast transient response, and low total harmonic distortion (THD) are the main advantages of the method. Firstly, a new decoupled per-phase model for the three-phase four-leg inverter is presented. It can eliminate the effect of power stage coupling on control design; thus, the three-phase four-leg power inverter can be viewed as three single input single output (SISO) control systems. Then, using an improved orthogonal signal generation method, the per-phase model of the four-leg inverter in the stationary and synchronous frame is derived. As the second step, a per-phase multi-loop control scheme for the four-leg inverter under unbalanced load conditions is suggested. The proposed control strategy has the ability to provide balanced output voltages under unbalanced load conditions by avoiding the need to deal with the symmetrical components. Finally, a multi-resonant harmonic compensator is used to actively prevent low-order harmonic currents to distort the output voltages of the three-phase four-leg grid-forming power converter. Simulations results are also presented to verify the performance of the suggested control strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2688
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2018

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Wed, 03 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Li, Y., Zou, C., Berecibar, M., Nanini-Maury, E., Chan, J. C-W., Van den Bossche, P., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., 3 Oct 2018, In : Applied Energy. 232, p. 197-210 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-210
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Energy
Volume232
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2018

Design Aspects of 11kW On-Board Charger based on SiC Technology for Electric Vehicles

Tue, 02 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Design Aspects of 11kW On-Board Charger based on SiC Technology for Electric Vehicles

Vu, H. N., Hegazy, O., Tran, D-D., Van Mierlo, J., Abdel Monem, M. & El Baghdadi, M., 2 Oct 2018, EVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018. p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

This research presents an On-Board Charger (OBC) design based on SiC technology for electric-vehicle applications. Due to the capability of high-speed switching of SiC MOSFETs, SiC-based OBC has the ability to achieve high power density and lightweight. In this research, soft-switching techniques with zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and zero-current-switching (ZCS) are adopted for DC-DC stage to increase the overall efficiency of the SiC-based OBC. An 11 kW SiC-based OBC has been designed and verified by simulation at different switching frequencies (i.e. 250 kHz, 500 kHz), expected efficiency of 96% and power density of 30W/in3.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018
Pages1-6
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18

Measuring the service quality of EV charging point operators

Tue, 02 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Measuring the service quality of EV charging point operators

Vanhaverbeke, L., De Clerck, Q. & Van Mierlo, J., 2 Oct 2018, p. 1-3. 3 p.

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferencePosterResearch

Original languageEnglish
Pages1-3
Number of pages3
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18

Experimental investigation of reaction rates during electrodeposition in Li-Sulfur battery

Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Experimental investigation of reaction rates during electrodeposition in Li-Sulfur battery

Goutam, S., Izaro Laresgoiti, I., Ayerbe, E., Omar, N., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J., 1 Oct 2018.

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferenceUnpublished paperResearch

Li-Sulfur battery has garnered attention due to its high energy density. However, owing to complex chemistry the working
mechanism is still ambiguous and often contradictory among peers. Here we present an experimental investigation of Li-S battery cells
where the behavior of current transient during potentiostatic discharge were studied. It was found that the formation of Li2S is more likely
through electrodeposition rather than chemical deposition. The nucleation and growth rate were measured by assuming a 2D progressive
nucleation and growth. The analysis was performed on cells with different electrolyte amount. It was observed that that at rapid discharge
the rate the growth is limited by mass transfer.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
EventEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018 - kobe , Japan
Duration: 1 Oct 20183 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018
CountryJapan
Citykobe
Period1/10/183/10/18

Modeling and Co-design Optimization for Heavy Duty Trucks

Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Modeling and Co-design Optimization for Heavy Duty Trucks

Tran, D-D., Hegazy, O., Van Mierlo, J., Klüppel Smijtink, R., Hellgren, J., Lindgarde, O., Pham, T. & Wilkins, S., 1 Oct 2018, The 31st International Electric Vehicles Symposium and Exhibition. EVS31, 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

This paper presents a co-design optimization framework for the heavy-duty trucks as a part of the ORCA European project. The proposed co-design framework composes of an optimal control strategy using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), which is nested into a component sizing optimization loop employing Genetic Algorithms (GA). Considering a particular transport assignment, the optimization objective is to find optimal sizing of key components such as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), Electric Motor (EM) and battery system to minimize a Total Cost of Ownership for hybrid heavy-duty powertrain (denoted as pTCO) without impairing the performance requirements. The pTCO includes the investment cost of main powertrain components and operational cost over the lifetime of vehicle. In the co-design framework, maximum power (kW) of the ICE (kW), EM (kW) and battery capacity (kWh) are selected as design variables of optimization problem. Optimal solution of the developed GA-based co-design framework is verified via a comparison with that of Brute Force (BF) search method.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe 31st International Electric Vehicles Symposium and Exhibition
PublisherEVS31
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18