Publications

Many of our publications can be accessed on researchgate

The impact of the vehicle-to-grid strategy on lithium-ion battery ageing process

Tue, 01 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The impact of the vehicle-to-grid strategy on lithium-ion battery ageing process

Li, Y., Messagie, M., Berecibar, M., Hegazy, O., Omar, N. & Van Mierlo, J., Oct 2019, 31st International Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition (EVS 31).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication31st International Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition (EVS 31)
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

Status and future perspectives of reliability assessment for electric vehicles

Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Status and future perspectives of reliability assessment for electric vehicles

Heidari Gandoman, F., Ahmadi, A., Van Den Bossche, P., Van Mierlo, J., Omar, N., Ali Esmaeel Nezhad, A., Mavalizadeh, H. & Mayet, C., 1 Mar 2019, In : Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 183, p. 1-16 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Using clean energy sources has contributed to various industries, especially the automotive industry. In this regard, large companies have taken a significant step in the field of renewable energy by introducing Electric Vehicles (EVs). One of the main challenges in the EVs area is evaluating the reliability and safety of these vehicles. Thus, the concept of the reliability and safety of EV's components is considered a significant issue. In general, reliability and safety assessment of important electrical components of EVs, i.e. i) the battery pack, ii) power electronic converters, and iii) the electric motor, plays a significant role in the lifetime performance of EVs’ electrical system. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the reliability of EVs’ components from different points of view. Also, the challenges and future perspective of EVs relating to the reliability and safety, which need to be considered have been investigated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalReliability Engineering & System Safety
Volume183
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Eco-Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles : Influence of Manufacturing Country and Commodity Prices on GHG Emissions and Costs

Tue, 19 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Eco-Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles : Influence of Manufacturing Country and Commodity Prices on GHG Emissions and Costs

Philippot, M., Alvarez, G., Ayerbe, E., Van Mierlo, J. & Messagie, M., 19 Feb 2019, In : Batteries. 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Lithium-ion battery packs inside electric vehicles represents a high share of the final price. Nevertheless, with technology advances and the growth of the market, the price of the battery is getting more competitive. The greenhouse gas emissions and the battery cost have been studied previously, but coherent boundaries between environmental and economic assessments are needed to assess the eco-efficiency of batteries. In this research, a detailed study is presented, providing an environmental and economic assessment of the manufacturing of one specific lithium-ion battery chemistry. The relevance of parameters is pointed out, including the manufacturing place, the production volume, the commodity prices, and the energy density. The inventory is obtained by dismantling commercial cells. The correlation between the battery cost and the commodity price is much lower than the correlation between the battery cost and the production volume. The developed life cycle assessment concludes that the electricity mix that is used to power the battery factory is a key parameter for the impact of the battery manufacturing on climate change. To improve the battery manufacturing eco-efficiency, a high production capacity and an electricity mix with low carbon intensity are suggested. Optimizing the process by reducing the electricity consumption during the manufacturing is also suggested, and combined with higher pack energy density, the impact on climate change of the pack manufacturing is as low as 39.5 kg CO2 eq/kWh.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalBatteries
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2019

Homo Roboticus: 30 vragen en antwoorden over mens, robot & artificiële intelligentie

Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Zijn robots slimmer dan mensen? Krijg je een robot als collega? Word jij halsoverkop verliefd op een robot? Krijgt de robot een license to kill? Is de robot wel een goede chirurg? Wat als atleten robots worden? Laat je een robot jouw grootmoeder in bed stoppen? Zullen huishoudrobots je vuile was niet buiten hangen?

Spitstechnologie doet onze leefwereld in sneltempo evolueren. De combinatie van robotica en artificiële intelligentie boort een schijnbaar eindeloos aanbod van nieuwe mogelijkheden aan, van zelfrijdende auto’s tot en met seksrobots en killerbots. Net zoals de Industriële Revolutie meer dan 250 jaar geleden zal ook deze technologische revolutie onze samenleving drastisch veranderen.

Hoe past de mens in deze technologische revolutie? Meer dan vijftig professoren en onderzoekers zijn met die vraag aan de slag gegaan en hebben bestudeerd hoe technologie verder ten dienste van de mens kan evolueren. Het boek Homo Roboticus bundelt hun antwoorden en brengt een inclusieve robotagenda met aanbevelingen voor heden en toekomst.
Homo Roboticus is het werk van VUB-denktank POINcaré en kwam tot stand onder leiding van An Jacobs (SMIT - imec VUB), Michel Maus (VUB – Bloomlaw), Romain Meeusen (VUB), Lynn Tytgat (weKONEKT.Brussels) en Bram Vanderborght (Brubotics VUB).

Meer info vindt u op www.homo-roboticus.be
Original languageDutch
PublisherASP
Number of pages297
ISBN (Print)9789057188503
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2019

City logistics in an omnichannel environment. The case of Brussels

Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

City logistics in an omnichannel environment. The case of Brussels

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S. & Macharis, C., 2 Feb 2019, In : Case Studies on Transport Policy.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Consumers live in an omnichannel environment, in which they use both online and offline channels for their shopping activities. The result is an increase in parcels shipped to consumers’ homes, challenging urban freight systems in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Many measures exist, that aim to optimise and improve activities of logistics service providers in urban areas. However, research on the parcel market and its actors is limited, so it is unclear how parcel distribution is organised and which city logistics measures are (not) adopted.
This information is needed to re-think parcel distribution and support policy-making that sustains and improves urban sustainability and quality of life. Therefore, we carried out case-study research with focus on Brussels,
Belgium’s largest city and capital. Findings demonstrate that logistics service providers are focused on measures that improve distribution efficiency, which is determined by parcel volume, stop density, delivery failure and urban regulation. To this end, pick-up points and lockers and tools to affect receiver behaviour are implemented most. Generally, Brussels’ parcel distribution market is dominated by conventional vehicles and traditional modes of operation, but regulations and policies are advancing the use of micro-hubs in combination with cargobikes.
Local authorities can facilitate adoption of city logistics measures for parcel distribution by cooperating and exchanging information with the private sector and by developing a harmonised, long-term vision on freight transport policy across cities and regions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2019

Logistics outsourcing in omnichannel retail: State of practice and service recommendations

Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Logistics outsourcing in omnichannel retail: State of practice and service recommendations

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S., Macharis, C., Schoutteet, P. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2 Feb 2019, In : International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify in what way logistics service providers are involved in the logistics operations of omnichannel retailers. Given the importance of logistics in omnichannel retail and the complexities that it brings forth, it is unclear if the current tendency towards logistics outsourcing continues, and how logistics service providers should adapt to remain relevant in the omnichannel retail environment.
Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on both desk and field research. The authors analysed the scientific information available on omnichannel retail logistics and conducted semi-structured expert interviews with food and non-food retailers that adopt an omnichannel model.
Findings – The research demonstrates distinct differences between food and non-food retailers. While food retailers are inclined to organise fulfilment and last mile activities in-house, non-food retailers partner closely with logistics service providers. Nonetheless, the store network of non-food retailers is attracting a growing part of logistics activities, which retailers are building themselves. To sustain their relevance in the omnichannel environment and strengthen their position for the future, the authors created a competency recommendation framework for logistics service providers, in which service differentiation is proposed as a viable direction for growth.
Research limitations/implications – The research is based on insights from retailers based in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium) and requires further and wider testing in other contexts and geographical areas.
Practical implications – The findings have strategic importance for retailers that are developing an omnichannel retail model and logistics service providers that (aim to) serve clients and operate activities within the retail sector.
Originality/value – The research provides a holistic view of logistics in omnichannel retail by identifying insourcing and outsourcing mechanisms and developing competency recommendations to fulfilment, internal transport and last mile transport in omnichannel retail
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2019

The 5E model of environmental engagement: Bringing sustainability change to higher education through positive psychology

Sat, 05 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The 5E model of environmental engagement: Bringing sustainability change to higher education through positive psychology

Macharis, C. & Kerret, D., 5 Jan 2019, In : Sustainability (Switzerland). 11, 1, 13 p., 241.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract: What is the role of universities in advancing sustainability? This paper delineates a unique program for promoting sustainability that was applied in Vrije Universiteit Brussels (VUB). The unique characteristics of the program are described in light of the positive sustainability framework. The five components of the program are designed to promote sustainable behavior of participants, through promoting goal-oriented hope: setting a goal; believing that one can successfully achieve the chosen goal (agency thinking); viewing the potential paths for achieving the goal (pathway thinking); and trusting other members of society to follow the same desired goal (social trust). The five components of the program are designed to jointly raise all the elements of hope. It starts with goal setting (estimate), which is aimed at evaluating the impact of the university on the physical environment. Secondly, the entire community of the university should be engaged in achieving the desired goal. The third component of the method is education about the potential options and actions for achieving the designed goal. Then, enabling the achievement of the goal takes place (meaning making it easy). Lastly, participants should be encouraged to pursue the goal by positive rewarding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number241
Number of pages13
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2019

Building Scenarios for the Future of Transport in Europe: The Mobility4EU Approach

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Building Scenarios for the Future of Transport in Europe: The Mobility4EU Approach

Keserü, I., Coosemans, T. & Macharis, C., 2019, Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe: Challenges, Solutions and Collaborations. Muller, B. & Meyer, G. (eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing, p. 15-30 (Lecture Notes in Mobility).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

This paper outlines the scenario-building approach of the Mobility4EU project that aims to create a vision and action plan for mobility and transport in 2030. Scenario building is the first step of the Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis (MAMCA), the methodology used to conduct a broad stakeholder consultation. To emphasize the participative nature of the scenario building, the scenarios were created using the intuitive logics technique and participatory workshops. Each scenario describes future trends and technological, organisational or policy-related solutions. Based on a survey of stakeholders, “policy & legislative framework” and “lifestyle and user behaviour” emerged as pivotal uncertainties to steer the scenario building. They provided the basis for the development of four scenarios: Data World, Digital Nomads, Slow is Beautiful, and Minimum Carbon. The paper describes the trends and solutions that comprise these scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTowards User-Centric Transport in Europe
Subtitle of host publicationChallenges, Solutions and Collaborations
EditorsBeate Muller, Gereon Meyer
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Pages15-30
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-99756-8
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-99755-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mobility
PublisherSpringer International

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SILICON ALLOY BASED LITHIUM-ION BATTERY FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SILICON ALLOY BASED LITHIUM-ION BATTERY FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Philippot, M., Smekens, J., Van Mierlo, J. & Messagie, M., 2019, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment. WIT Press, p. 129-139 11 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) are seen as a solution for cleaner mobility, due to their ability to reduce air emissions in cities. Batteries are key components that have a large influence on performances of EVs. Energy density is an important requirement from automotive industry, therefore the goal of this study is to assess the impact on climate change of a traction battery with new cells containing a high voltage NMC cathode and silicon alloy based anode. Silicon is a promising material for traction batteries, considering its high energy density. The scope of the paper is the manufacturing. This study uses the life cycle assessment method. Setting coherent system boundaries and functional unit is essential and literature regarding these choices is reviewed. Site-specific data from industrial partners is collected as much as possible. The uncertainty of the results is then assessed thanks to a Monte Carlo simulation.
The main contributor to climate change is cell manufacturing due to the use of fossil resources for electricity generation. The next big contributor is the cathode paste, half of the cathode paste emissions occurring in the nickel sulphate manufacturing. Note that nickel sulphate is the main precursor in the cathode. Substrates, electrolyte and separator do not represent high shares of emissions, even though they represent almost 40% of the cell mass.
To evaluate the robustness of the conclusions, a sensitivity analysis is performed. Today, most of batteries are manufactured in China and the European Commission is pushing toward a more local production. The sensitivity of the results is tested by replacing the original mix by the Chinese average mix and by renewable energy sources. In conclusion, manufacturing in Europe can reduce the impact on climate change and using hydropower and/or photovoltaic panels can even improve the environmental performances of manufacturing of this battery.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWIT Transactions on The Built Environment
PublisherWIT Press
Pages129-139
Number of pages11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Multi-actor multi-criteria analysis as a tool to involve urban logistics stakeholders

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Multi-actor multi-criteria analysis as a tool to involve urban logistics stakeholders

Macharis, C., Kin, B. & Lebeau, P., 2019, Urban logistics: Management, policy and innovation in a rapidly changing environment. Browne, M., Behrends, S., Woxenius, J., Giuliano, G. & Holguin-Veras, J. (eds.). London: Kogan Page, p. 274-292

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUrban logistics
Subtitle of host publicationManagement, policy and innovation in a rapidly changing environment
EditorsMichael Browne, Sonke Behrends, Johan Woxenius, Genevieve Giuliano, Jose Holguin-Veras
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherKogan Page
Chapter13
Pages274-292
ISBN (Electronic)978-0749478711
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Should I Stay or Should I Go? Assessing Intermodal and Synchromodal Resilience from a Decentralized Perspective

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Should I Stay or Should I Go? Assessing Intermodal and Synchromodal Resilience from a Decentralized Perspective

Ambra, T., Caris, A. & Macharis, C., 2019, ORBEL 33: 33rd annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society. p. 77-77 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingMeeting abstract (Book)Research

The paper concerns routing of individual orders and their responsiveness to disruptions. Computational experiments are performed in a case study which relates to imports of retail goods by unimodal truck transport from France to Belgium. Our findings show that dynamic synchromodal solutions cope with disturbances better, but unnecessary deviations and pro-activeness can also lead to negative effects when compared to static intermodal solutions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationORBEL 33
Subtitle of host publication33rd annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society
Pages77-77
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventORBEL33: 33th annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society - Hasselt, Belgium
Duration: 7 Feb 20198 Feb 2019
https://www.orbel.be/orbel33/

Conference

ConferenceORBEL33: 33th annual conference of the Belgian Operational Research Society
CountryBelgium
CityHasselt
Period7/02/198/02/19
Internet address

Societal Trends Influencing Mobility and Logistics in Europe: A Comprehensive Analysis

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Societal Trends Influencing Mobility and Logistics in Europe: A Comprehensive Analysis

L’Hostis, A., Chalkia, E., de la Cruz, M. T., Müller, B. & Keserü, I., 2019, Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe: Challenges, Solutions and Collaborations. Cham: Springer International Publishing, p. 31-49 (Lecture Notes in Mobility).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

The objective of this paper is to establish a comprehensive view of societal
trends that have an impact on mobility and logistics in the future. Based on a review of scientific literature, the output of European research projects and reports from consultancies, the result of this investigation provides a broad and comprehensive set of factors that influence, and will influence in the future, mobility and logistics. The set is composed of 29 trends organised under 9 larger categories covering economic issues, societal issues, urbanisation, the environment, the digital society, new business models, safety, security and the legislative framework. The present analysis has greatly benefited from the concept of liquid modernity developed by Bauman that value of this contribution is its systematic approach allowing to describe this complex topic in an exhaustive manner while focussing on links and dependencies enabled a broad and complete view on the dynamics of society and mobility. It allows describing linkages between social and economic trends, and between society and technology, especially information and communication technology. Thus, the added value of this contribution is its systematic approach allowing to describe this complex topic in an exhaustive manner while focussing on links and dependencies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTowards User-Centric Transport in Europe
Subtitle of host publicationChallenges, Solutions and Collaborations
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Pages31-49
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-99756-8
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-99755-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mobility
PublisherSpringer International

The role of V2G enabled EVs in the Wind curtailment and DSO Services

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The role of V2G enabled EVs in the Wind curtailment and DSO Services

Roncancio Marin, J., Crispeels, T., Messagie, M. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2019, (Unpublished) Electric Vehicle Symposium Proceedings 2019 .

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

Research on sustainability highlights the use of environmentally friendly technologies, especially for the industrial and automotive sectors, to reduce the environmental impact of future developments. The automotive industry currently seeks to abandon its dependence on fossil fuel through the inclusion of electric vehicles. Despite being a more sustainable technology - at least regarding the considerable reduction in the
emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere - its adoption by consumers leads to an increase in the energy demand and puts additional strain on the electricity grid. The electric vehicle adoption by citizens leads to problems such as the increase in peak loads and interruptions in the energy supply. Such problems can be
solved or prevented whenever electricity companies have energy storage systems that can be used to stabilize the electricity grid or to mitigate the sudden cuts in the supply. Within electric vehicles, there exists V2G (Vehicle to Grid) technology which enables EVs in returning power to the electricity grid by using bidirectional charging systems. In this paper, we want to evaluate the extent in which V2G technology could serve as a solution to the challenges faced by energy companies as a result of the transition from traditional mobility to electric mobility. We use Belgium as a case study and project the energy consumption, the number
of electric vehicles in the fleet (including BEV - PHEV), as well as the effects on the electricity grid due to the inclusion of V2G enabled vehicles in the Belgian car fleet. In this paper, we calculate the value arising from this technological change for two specific scenarios: the use of V2G for (1) wind energy curtailment
and (2) DSO services.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectric Vehicle Symposium Proceedings 2019
Publication statusUnpublished - 2019
EventElectric Vehicle Symposium 2019 - Lyon, France
Duration: 19 May 201922 May 2019

Other

OtherElectric Vehicle Symposium 2019
CountryFrance
CityLyon
Period19/05/1922/05/19

The value of V2G enabled Electric Vehicles towards P2P business models

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

The value of V2G enabled Electric Vehicles towards P2P business models

Roncancio Marin, J., Crispeels, T., Messagie, M. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2019, (In preparation).

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferenceUnpublished abstractResearch

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusIn preparation - 2019

Value aspects of V2G enabled Electric vehicles

Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT

Value aspects of V2G enabled Electric vehicles

Roncancio Marin, J., Crispeels, T., Messagie, M. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 2019, (Unpublished) ENGIE - Report on V2G.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearch

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationENGIE - Report on V2G
Publication statusUnpublished - 2019

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Li, Y., Zou, C., Berecibar, M., Chan, J. C. W., Nanini-Maury, E., Van Den Bossche, P., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., 15 Dec 2018, In : Applied Energy. 232, p. 197-210 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Machine-learning based methods have been widely used for battery health state monitoring. However, the existing studies require sophisticated data processing for feature extraction, thereby complicating the implementation in battery management systems. This paper proposes a machine-learning technique, random forest regression, for battery capacity estimation. The proposed technique is able to learn the dependency of the battery capacity on the features that are extracted from the charging voltage and capacity measurements. The random forest regression is solely based on signals, such as the measured current, voltage and time, that are available onboard during typical battery operation. The collected raw data can be directly fed into the trained model without any pre-processing, leading to a low computational cost. The incremental capacity analysis is employed for the feature selection. The developed method is applied and validated on lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries with different ageing patterns. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is able to evaluate the health states of different batteries under varied cycling conditions with a root-mean-square error of less than 1.3% and a low computational requirement. Therefore, the proposed method is promising for online battery capacity estimation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-210
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Energy
Volume232
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2018

Monitoring Urban Freight Transport based on GPS Trajectories of Heavy-Goods Vehicles

Fri, 14 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Monitoring Urban Freight Transport based on GPS Trajectories of Heavy-Goods Vehicles

Hadavi, S., Verlinde, S., Verbeke, W., Macharis, C. & Guns, M., 14 Dec 2018, In : IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. 2018, p. 1-12

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Volume2018
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2018

Improving policy support in city logistics: The contributions of a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis

Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Improving policy support in city logistics: The contributions of a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis

Lebeau, P., Macharis, C., Van Mierlo, J. & Janjevic, M., Dec 2018, In : Case Studies on Transport Policy. 6, 4, p. 554-563 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A range of solutions have been developed to improve the sustainability of city logistics. However, their implementations are sometimes failing. Involving stakeholders in the decision process is increasingly recognised to be a necessity to guarantee the adoption of these solutions by the sector and ensure their successful implementation. The objective of the paper is therefore to contribute to the development of a bottom-up approach where stakeholders are involved in the evaluation and selection of more sustainable strategies for city logistics. The authors present the MAMCA as a method which structures the consultation process of stakeholders. This approach was tested in a workshop in Brussels and the paper uses that consultation process as an illustration of the methodology. That application demonstrated the benefits of the MAMCA to ensure a productive workshop. The methodology allows the authorities to especially identify the priorities of the stakeholders in city logistics, to guide the discussion towards a consensus and to provide inputs for an eventual adaptation of the strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)554-563
Number of pages10
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Volume6
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

Thermal Effect of Fast-Charging Profiles on Lithium-Ion Batteries

Tue, 27 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Thermal Effect of Fast-Charging Profiles on Lithium-Ion Batteries

Jaguemont, J., Abdel-Monem, M., Omar, N., Van Mierlo, J. & Van Den Bossche, P., 27 Nov 2018, ICEMS 2018 - 2018 21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 2127-2132 6 p. 8549461

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

In this paper, the effect of fast-charging technics on thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries is investigated. Fast-charging tests involve typically high-current profiles which leads to high cell temperature increase, and thus in some cases thermal runaways. Most papers in literature present the fast-charging technic from an electrical point-of-view. The thermal aspect is often disregarded. Therefore, two charging profiles that are commonly used for fast-charging applications are applied on two lithium-ion chemistries: lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium titanate (LTO). Thermal pictures of the cells during the profile are recorded to witness the temperature distribution. In addition, to enlarge the study scope, three environmental temperatures are tested: 25°C, 10°C and 45°C.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationICEMS 2018 - 2018 21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages2127-2132
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9788986510201
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2018
Event21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ICEMS 2018 - Jeju, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 7 Oct 201810 Oct 2018

Conference

Conference21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ICEMS 2018
CountryKorea, Republic of
CityJeju
Period7/10/1810/10/18

Citizen observatory for mobility: a conceptual framework

Mon, 05 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Citizen observatory for mobility: a conceptual framework

Keserü, I., Wuytens, N. & Macharis, C., 5 Nov 2018, In : Transport Reviews. 25 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Citizen observatories that incorporate participatory sensing can complement traditional and automated data collection methods for mobility planning and increase the level of participation of citizens in transport planning. The process of developing such an online environment is not only time-consuming and costly, but it would also require an extensive knowledge of computer programming. This is one of the main barriers to the proliferation of citizen observatories. Therefore, this paper develops a conceptual framework of a citizen observatory platform that does not require special skills or resources. It would enable the collection, analysis and exchange of quantitative and qualitative mobility-related data by citizens. We have reviewed 69 participatory sensing applications in the field of mobility to derive the essential building stones of such an observatory. We identified the requirements considering eight criteria: campaign management, objective, context, data types, sensing technology, motivation of data collectors, validation and representativeness, visualisation and reporting. Some concerns regarding representativeness of data, motivation of data collectors, accuracy of sensors and validated algorithms for indicators are also raised.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages25
JournalTransport Reviews
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Nov 2018

Comprehensive Aging Analysis of Volumetric Constrained Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells with High Concentration Silicon-Alloy Anodes

Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Comprehensive Aging Analysis of Volumetric Constrained Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells with High Concentration Silicon-Alloy Anodes

De Sutter, L., Berckmans, G. J., Marinaro, M., Smekens, J., Firouz, Y., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., Nov 2018, In : Energies. 11, 11, 21 p., en11112948.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

In this research, twenty-four high capacity (1360 mAh) NMC622/Si-alloy Li-ion full pouch cells with high silicon-alloy content (55%) are cycle aged under seven different cycling conditions to study the effect of different stressors on the cycle life of Si-anode full cells, among which are the effect of ambient temperature, Depth of Discharge (DoD) and the discharge current. The cells are volumetrically constrained at an optimal initial pressure to improve their cycle life, energy and power capabilities. Furthermore, the innovative test setup allows measuring the developed pressure as a result of repeated (de-)lithiation during battery cycling. This uniquely vast testing campaign on Si-anode full cells allows us to study and quantify independently the influence of different stress factors on their cycle life for the first time, as well as to develop a new capacity fade model based on an observed linear relationship between capacity retention and total discharge capacity throughput.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberen11112948
Number of pages21
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018

The “next day, free delivery” myth unravelled: Possibilities for sustainable last mile transport in an omnichannel environment

Sat, 20 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

The “next day, free delivery” myth unravelled: Possibilities for sustainable last mile transport in an omnichannel environment

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S. & Macharis, C., 20 Oct 2018, In : International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Purpose: Currently, it is unclear how omnichannel retailers can create a last mile offer that is both attractive and sustainable from an economic and environmental point of view. The purpose of this paper is to explore to which extent consumers are willing to adopt last mile options that are more sustainable and how these options should be composed to remain attractive. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, the authors surveyed a representative sample of Belgian consumers, using choice-based conjoint experiments, and analysed their preferences structures. Findings: Consumers’ preference goes out to free, next day delivery to an address of choice, on regular office hours during the week. However, when free delivery and return are offered, consumers are willing to collect their orders themselves or wait longer for their orders to arrive. Practical implications: The research findings are important for retailers that (plan to) operate an omnichannel model. For omnichannel retailers with a dense store network, the results indicate that consumers accept their store network as pick-up and return locations, allowing retailers to create a more efficient and sustainable supply chain in which their online and offline activities can be combined. Originality/value: The research findings contribute to current literature and practice by combining “planet” and “profit” components of sustainability in last mile transport and applying it in the novel omnichannel environment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Retail and Distribution Management
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2018

Electrical Characterization and Micro X-ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Next-Generation Silicon Alloy Lithium-Ion Cells

Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Electrical Characterization and Micro X-ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Next-Generation Silicon Alloy Lithium-Ion Cells

Berckmans, G. J., De Sutter, L., Kersys, A., Kriston, A., Marinaro, M., Kasper, M., Axmann, P., Smekens, J., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M., Pfrang, A., Jaguemont, J., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., 19 Oct 2018, In : World Electric Vehicle Journal. 9, 3, p. 1-14 14 p., 43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

This study analyzed a prototype of a pouch cell containing silicon alloy anodes with the potential to significantly increase the energy density, resulting in improved autonomy for electric vehicles. An electrical characterization campaign was performed, resulting in three main observations. Firstly, measurements showed a high energy density, although a high lower cutoff voltage (3.0 V) was used due to the prototypical nature of the cells. Further optimization would allow a decrease of the lower cutoff voltage, resulting in an even higher energy density. Secondly, a large open-circuit voltage hysteresis was observed, increasing the complexity for equivalent circuit models. Thirdly, ballooning of the pouch cell was observed, most likely caused by gas formation. This leads to a loss of active surface area, significantly reducing the cell’s capacity. This third observation was more thoroughly investigated by 3D computed tomography, which showed mechanical deformation of the layers. An extensive literature review revealed that the addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte enhances the cycling stability of silicon alloy batteries but leads to the production of CO 2 as a side reaction. Furthermore, the usage of external pressure was proposed and validated as a methodology to reduce the production of CO 2 while improving the cells’ performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number43
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2018

Performance Evaluation of a PID-Controlled Synchronous Buck Converter Based Battery Charging Controller for Solar-Powered Lighting System in a Fishing Trawler

Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Performance Evaluation of a PID-Controlled Synchronous Buck Converter Based Battery Charging Controller for Solar-Powered Lighting System in a Fishing Trawler

Chakraborty, S., Hasan, M. M., Worighi, I., Hegazy, O. & Razzak, M. A., 11 Oct 2018, In : Energies. 11, 10, 26 p., 2722.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID)-controlled synchronous buck converter (SBC)-based battery charging system was designed to charge a lead-acid cell battery using commercially available Photovoltaic (PV) panel. The proposed system was installed aboard a fishing trawler to power its electrical system replacing the conventional system, which uses a diesel generator and a few kerosene lamps for lighting purposes. A PID algorithm instead of traditional Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used in the proposed system since the charging process of the battery requires a maximum current instead of maximum power. The proposed control algorithm is compared with the popular MPPT technique Perturb and Observation (P&O) to validate its dynamic performance at different solar irradiance levels using MATLAB/Simulink®. The simulation and the experimental results have demonstrated that the dynamic response of the proposed algorithm is significantly improved by considering higher charging current, the capability to charge the battery at low irradiance, high stability, and lower cost. Finally, a successful 15-day field trial was conducted at sea using the proposed system, and a maximum charging current output of 6.5 A was achieved by the SBC during noon time; it was sufficient to charge a 12 V, 100 Ah battery, with a state of charge (SoC) of 33%, at a voltage charging rate of +0.3 V/h.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2722
Number of pages26
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2018

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Zhu, X., Fernández Macía, L., Jaguemont, J., de Hoog, J., Nikolian, A., Omar, N. & Hubin, A., 10 Oct 2018, In : Electrochimica Acta. 287, p. 10-20 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A comprehensive electrochemical impedance study is conducted on LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrode material as a function of state-of-charge and aging. Electrodes are harvested from four commercial batteries with different state-of-health conditions. Odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the symmetric cell approach are applied in this work in order to obtain reliable impedance results. An equivalent electrical circuit model is constructed. The parameters related to the generalized finite-space Warburg element, the CPE element and the charge transfer resistance are further interpreted. Valuable information is obtained and closely linked to the physical phenomena. The charge transfer resistance has been proved to be the most reliable parameter for the estimation of state-of-health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-20
Number of pages11
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume287
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2018

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Electrochemical impedance study of commercial LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes as a function of state of charge and aging

Zhu, X., Fernandez Macia, L., Jaguemont, J., De Hoog, J., Nikolian, A., Omar, N. & Hubin, A., 10 Oct 2018, In : Electrochimica Acta. 287, p. 10-20 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

A comprehensive electrochemical impedance study is conducted on LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrode material as a function of state-of-charge and aging. Electrodes are harvested from four commercial batteries with different state-of-health conditions. Odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the symmetric cell approach are applied in this work in order to obtain reliable impedance results. An equivalent electrical circuit model is constructed. The parameters related to the generalized finite-space Warburg element, the CPE element and the charge transfer resistance are further interpreted. Valuable information is obtained and closely linked to the physical phenomena. The charge transfer resistance has been proved to be the most reliable parameter for the estimation of state-of-health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-20
Number of pages11
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume287
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2018

Improved Voltage Unbalance and Harmonics Compensation Control Strategy for an Isolated Microgrid

Sun, 07 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Improved Voltage Unbalance and Harmonics Compensation Control Strategy for an Isolated Microgrid

Hadidian Moghaddam, M. J., Kalam, A., Reza Miveh, M., Naderipour, A., Heidari Gandoman, F., Ghadimi, A. A. & Malek, Z. A., 7 Oct 2018, In : Energies. 11, 10, p. 1-26 26 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

This paper suggests an enhanced control scheme for a four-leg battery energy storage systems (BESS) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions operating in the isolated microgrid. Simplicity, tiny steady-state error, fast transient response, and low total harmonic distortion (THD) are the main advantages of the method. Firstly, a new decoupled per-phase model for the three-phase four-leg inverter is presented. It can eliminate the effect of power stage coupling on control design; thus, the three-phase four-leg power inverter can be viewed as three single input single output (SISO) control systems. Then, using an improved orthogonal signal generation method, the per-phase model of the four-leg inverter in the stationary and synchronous frame is derived. As the second step, a per-phase multi-loop control scheme for the four-leg inverter under unbalanced load conditions is suggested. The proposed control strategy has the ability to provide balanced output voltages under unbalanced load conditions by avoiding the need to deal with the symmetrical components. Finally, a multi-resonant harmonic compensator is used to actively prevent low-order harmonic currents to distort the output voltages of the three-phase four-leg grid-forming power converter. Simulations results are also presented to verify the performance of the suggested control strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2018

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Wed, 03 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Random forest regression for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Li, Y., Zou, C., Berecibar, M., Nanini-Maury, E., Chan, J. C-W., Van den Bossche, P., Van Mierlo, J. & Omar, N., 3 Oct 2018, In : Applied Energy. 232, p. 197-210 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-210
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Energy
Volume232
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2018

Design Aspects of 11kW On-Board Charger based on SiC Technology for Electric Vehicles

Tue, 02 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Design Aspects of 11kW On-Board Charger based on SiC Technology for Electric Vehicles

Vu, H. N., Hegazy, O., Tran, D-D., Van Mierlo, J., Abdel Monem, M. & El Baghdadi, M., 2 Oct 2018, EVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018. p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

This research presents an On-Board Charger (OBC) design based on SiC technology for electric-vehicle applications. Due to the capability of high-speed switching of SiC MOSFETs, SiC-based OBC has the ability to achieve high power density and lightweight. In this research, soft-switching techniques with zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and zero-current-switching (ZCS) are adopted for DC-DC stage to increase the overall efficiency of the SiC-based OBC. An 11 kW SiC-based OBC has been designed and verified by simulation at different switching frequencies (i.e. 250 kHz, 500 kHz), expected efficiency of 96% and power density of 30W/in3.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018
Pages1-6
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18

Measuring the service quality of EV charging point operators

Tue, 02 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Measuring the service quality of EV charging point operators

Vanhaverbeke, L., De Clerck, Q. & Van Mierlo, J., 2 Oct 2018, p. 1-3. 3 p.

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferencePosterResearch

Original languageEnglish
Pages1-3
Number of pages3
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18

A Harmonic Compensation Strategy in a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Using Zero-Sequence Control

Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

A Harmonic Compensation Strategy in a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Using Zero-Sequence Control

Naderipour, A., Abdul-Malek, Z., Reza Miveh, M., Hadidian Moghaddam, M. J., Kalam, A. & Heidari Gandoman, F., 1 Oct 2018, In : Energies. 10, 11, p. 1-18 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Mitigation of harmonics for a grid-connected inverter is an important element to stabilize the control and the quality of current injected into the grid. This paper deals with the control method of a three-phase Grid-Connected Inverter (GCI) Photovoltaic (PV) system, which is based on the zero-sequence current adjuster. The proposed method is capable of removing the harmonic current and voltage without using any active and passive filters and without the knowledge of the microgrid topology and also impedances of distribution bands and loading conditions. This concept is adopted for the control of a Distributed Generator (DG) in the form of grid-connected inverter. The proposed control can be applied to the grid connected inverter of the PV. The fast dynamic response, simple design, stability, and fast transient response are the new main features of the proposed design. This paper also analyzes the circuit configuration effects on the grid connected inverter capability. The proposed control is used to demonstrate the improved stability and performance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalEnergies
Volume10
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018

Experimental investigation of reaction rates during electrodeposition in Li-Sulfur battery

Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Experimental investigation of reaction rates during electrodeposition in Li-Sulfur battery

Goutam, S., Izaro Laresgoiti, I., Ayerbe, E., Omar, N., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J., 1 Oct 2018.

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferenceUnpublished paperResearch

Li-Sulfur battery has garnered attention due to its high energy density. However, owing to complex chemistry the working
mechanism is still ambiguous and often contradictory among peers. Here we present an experimental investigation of Li-S battery cells
where the behavior of current transient during potentiostatic discharge were studied. It was found that the formation of Li2S is more likely
through electrodeposition rather than chemical deposition. The nucleation and growth rate were measured by assuming a 2D progressive
nucleation and growth. The analysis was performed on cells with different electrolyte amount. It was observed that that at rapid discharge
the rate the growth is limited by mass transfer.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
EventEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018 - kobe , Japan
Duration: 1 Oct 20183 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018
CountryJapan
Citykobe
Period1/10/183/10/18

Modeling and Co-design Optimization for Heavy Duty Trucks

Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Modeling and Co-design Optimization for Heavy Duty Trucks

Tran, D-D., Hegazy, O., Van Mierlo, J., Klüppel Smijtink, R., Hellgren, J., Lindgarde, O., Pham, T. & Wilkins, S., 1 Oct 2018, The 31st International Electric Vehicles Symposium and Exhibition. EVS31, 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

This paper presents a co-design optimization framework for the heavy-duty trucks as a part of the ORCA European project. The proposed co-design framework composes of an optimal control strategy using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), which is nested into a component sizing optimization loop employing Genetic Algorithms (GA). Considering a particular transport assignment, the optimization objective is to find optimal sizing of key components such as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), Electric Motor (EM) and battery system to minimize a Total Cost of Ownership for hybrid heavy-duty powertrain (denoted as pTCO) without impairing the performance requirements. The pTCO includes the investment cost of main powertrain components and operational cost over the lifetime of vehicle. In the co-design framework, maximum power (kW) of the ICE (kW), EM (kW) and battery capacity (kWh) are selected as design variables of optimization problem. Optimal solution of the developed GA-based co-design framework is verified via a comparison with that of Brute Force (BF) search method.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe 31st International Electric Vehicles Symposium and Exhibition
PublisherEVS31
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18

State of Health Battery Algorithm for Real Applications

Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

State of Health Battery Algorithm for Real Applications

Berecibar, M., Omar, N., Coosemans, T., Van Mierlo, J. & Messagie, M., 1 Oct 2018, EVS31. The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA), 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

An accurate model for State of Health estimation in Li-ion batteries is presented. This algorithm can address the state of health estimation at cell, module and battery pack level. An embeddable easy to implement algorithm has been verified and validated in a 79 different scenarios. The algorithm is based on detecting some features, which are easily measured from voltage measurements. The use of the algorithm is suitable to be implemented in different promising applications. Consequently, the algorhithm is also evaluated on this regard. In adittion, some modifications are suggested so to run the estimator quicker.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEVS31
PublisherThe World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA)
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18

Total Cost for Society: A Persona-based Analysis of Electric and Conventional Vehicles

Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Total Cost for Society: A Persona-based Analysis of Electric and Conventional Vehicles

De Clerck, Q., Van Lier, T., Messagie, M., Macharis, C., Van Mierlo, J. & Vanhaverbeke, L., 1 Oct 2018, In : Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 64, p. 90-110 21 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

The purchase and usage of a car comes at a cost for the owner, i.e. the Total Cost of Ownership, but also causes costs to society, i.e. external costs. Summing up the privately borne costs with the publicly borne costs results in the Total Cost for Society.

To assess how ownership costs and external costs are currently balanced in the Total Cost for Society for different vehicle technologies, we present a persona-based analysis of the costs categories associated with the ownership and usage of electric and conventional cars within three passenger car segments. Six persona represent diverse driver profiles with different mobility patterns in Flanders (Belgium).

We find that the balance between ownership costs and external costs is highly variable given the assumed persona, while for each persona the ranking between the vehicle technologies themselves does not vary much.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-110
Number of pages21
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Volume64
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018

Internal preheat method for NMC batteries at cold climate conditions

Tue, 25 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Internal preheat method for NMC batteries at cold climate conditions

Kalogiannis, T., Jaguemont, J., Omar, N., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J., 25 Sep 2018, Internal preheat method for NMC batteries at cold climate conditions: evs. EVS31, p. 1-7 7 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

Lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) performance can be significantly declined if they are operated at cold climates. To prevent this, and in order to maintain their optimal operation, a preheat process is crucial to take place. This process can be achieved internally by applying constant amplitude and frequency bi-directional pulse currents at the battery cell. In this paper, a validated to experimental results, electro-thermal model coupled to a lifetime model of a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) pouch battery cell is proposed, to calculate the heat transfer and energy efficiencies as well as the degradation costs, during operation of the aforesaid preheat technique.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternal preheat method for NMC batteries at cold climate conditions
Subtitle of host publicationevs
PublisherEVS31
Pages1-7
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2018
EventEVS31 - Kobe, Japan
Duration: 30 Sep 20184 Oct 2018

Conference

ConferenceEVS31
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period30/09/184/10/18

Multiobjective Robust Power System Expansion Planning Considering Generation Units Retirement

Tue, 25 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Multiobjective Robust Power System Expansion Planning Considering Generation Units Retirement

Mavalizadeh, H., Ahmadi, A., Heidari Gandoman, F., Siano, P. & Shayanfar, H. A., 25 Sep 2018, In : IEEE Systems Journal. 12, 3, p. 2664-2675

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

This paper presents a mixed-integer linear robust
multiobjective model for the expansion planning of an electric
power system. An information-gap decision theory-based framework is proposed to take into account the uncertainties in electrical demand and new power system elements prices. The model is
intended to increase the power system resistance against the uncertainties caused by forecast errors. The normal boundary intersection method is used to obtain the Pareto front of the multiobjective
problem. Since the planning problem is a large-scale problem, the
model is kept linear using the Big M linearization technique that is
able to significantly decrease the computational burden. The fuel
transportation and availability constraints are taken into account.
The model also enables the system planner to build new fuel transportation routes whenever it is necessary. The generating units’
retirement is also incorporated into the model, and the simulation
results are showed to the advantages of incorporating units’ retirement in the power system expansion planning model instead
of considering it separately. The proposed multiobjective method
is applied to the Garver 6-bus, IEEE 24-bus, and IEEE 118-bus
test systems, and the results are compared with the well-known
epsilon-constraint method.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2664-2675
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2018

The Brussels Technology Transfer Ecosystem: A Historical Perspective

Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT

The Brussels Technology Transfer Ecosystem: A Historical Perspective

Aerts, G. & Crispeels, T., 5 Sep 2018, Book of abstracts. The Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, p. 23-23 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

This paper provides a historical overview of the evolutions that have guided the formation of the Brussels technology transfer ecosystem. The research effort finds its relevance in the description of the evolution of the ecosystem and the socio-economic impact of the university spin-offs that were established within this geographically scoped technology transfer ecosystem. Furthermore, the paper offers an integrative research method that both qualitatively and quantitatively captures distinctive ecosystems. The research adds to the technology transfer knowledge base as it drives the case-based comparative analyses of technology transfer ecosystems further.
The findings provide a clear overview of the technology transfer ecosystem within the broader Brussels region. These finding deepen the understanding of the socio-economic impact university spin-offs have within their ecosystem. The research finds that university spin-offs generate added value for a broad set of socio-economic actors. However, a spin-off’s impact on the regional economy can often be overstated as added value is not necessarily generated in, nor directly linked to the geographical region where the parent university is located.
This paper contributes to the study of tech transfer ecosystems as it offers an integrated approach towards the mapping the development of ecosystem descriptions. This method allows us to broaden the research field through comparative research methods. From a societal perspective, the research provides input to the discussion on the role of both national and regional industrial policy making, the use of subsidies in the promotion of application-oriented research, as well as on the role of policy-makers as stakeholders in the technology transfer ecosystem
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBook of abstracts
PublisherThe Manchester Institute of Innovation Research
Pages23-23
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sep 2018
EventThe XVI Triple Helix Conference 2018 : The Triple Helix and Beyond - A New Era - The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Duration: 5 Sep 20188 Sep 2018
http://thc2018.org/

Conference

ConferenceThe XVI Triple Helix Conference 2018
Abbreviated titleTHC 2018
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityManchester
Period5/09/188/09/18
Internet address

Studie naar de organisatie van een doeltreffende controle op verontreinigende emissies van motoren om frauduleuze praktijken vast te stellen tijdens homologatietesten

Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Studie naar de organisatie van een doeltreffende controle op verontreinigende emissies van motoren om frauduleuze praktijken vast te stellen tijdens homologatietesten

Hooftman, N. S. & Denys, T., Sep 2018, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, MOBI. 17 p.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportResearch

Original languageEnglish
PublisherVrije Universiteit Brussel, MOBI
Commissioning bodyBIM/IBGE (Leefmilieu Brussel)
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

Shipping outside the box. Environmental impact and stakeholder analysis of a crowd logistics platform in Belgium

Wed, 22 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Shipping outside the box. Environmental impact and stakeholder analysis of a crowd logistics platform in Belgium

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S. & Macharis, C., 22 Aug 2018, In : Journal of Cleaner Production. 202, p. 806-816 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Crowd logistics is an alternative to traditional home deliveries by parcel companies and is believed to be more sustainable. The idea of crowd logistics is that parcels and passengers are co-transported along a passenger trip that was intended to be made for another purpose. Due to the novelty of this concept and the fact that existing crowd logistics platforms are continuously changing, knowledge on the actual impact of crowd logistics is limited. To gain insight in crowd logistics' environmental impact and the involved stakeholders, we apply two methods. First, an impact analysis based on data of an operational crowd logistics platform in Belgium.We compare the external costs imposed on society when delivering a parcel with crowd logistics and with more traditional ways of transport. Second, an analysis of
stakeholder support for crowd logistics, by applying amulti-actor multi-criteria analysis or MAMCA. The findings indicate that current platform use results in higher external transport costs and thus a higher environmental impact, when compared to traditional parcel delivery. Although the concept receives support from the main stakeholders, societal objectives are not met. A critical role in improving crowd logistics’ impact is reserved for the platform provider, who can adjust the platform operation and incentivisation to steer efficient vehicle use. Future research efforts can be allocated to other types of crowd logistics platforms and non-urban application of the concept.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)806-816
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume202
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2018

Impact of the Temperature in the Evaluation of Battery Performances During Long-Term Cycling—Characterisation and Modelling

Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Impact of the Temperature in the Evaluation of Battery Performances During Long-Term Cycling—Characterisation and Modelling

Capron, O., Jaguemont, J., Gopalakrishnan, R., Van Den Bossche, P., Omar, N. & Van Mierlo, J., 13 Aug 2018, In : Applied Sciences. 8, 8, p. 1364 25 p., 1364.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

This paper presents the results regarding the thermal characterisation and modelling of
high energy lithium-ion battery cells at both room (25 C) and cycling (35 C) temperatures. In this
work two types of Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) batteries are studied: a fresh (or uncycled) and
an aged (or cycled) battery cells. The ageing of the studied NMC battery cells is achieved by means
of accelerated ageing tests (i.e., repetition of numerous charge and discharge cycles) at 35 C cycling
temperature. Temperature at the surface of the battery cells is characterised, with a set of three
discharge current rates 0.3C (i.e., 6 A), 1C (i.e., 20 A) and 2C (i.e., 40 A), and the evolutions at three
different locations on the surface of the battery cells namely, at the top, in the center and at the bottom
regions are measured. In addition, temperature and ageing dependent electrochemical-thermal
modelling of the uncycled and cycled battery cells is also successfully accomplished in case of both
room and cycling temperatures. Numerical simulations were carried out in case of high 2C constant
current rate, and the assessment of the modelling accuracy by comparison of the predicted battery
cells voltage and temperature with respect to the experimental data is further presented. With this
paper, thermal performances of battery cells prior and after long-term cycling are evaluated at the
cycling temperature, next to the ambient temperature. Hence, thermal characterisation and modelling
results are more closely reflecting that encountered by the battery cells in real cycling conditions,
so that their performances are believed in this way to be more objectively evaluated.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1364
Pages (from-to)1364
Number of pages25
JournalApplied Sciences
Volume8
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Aug 2018

Optimized Multiport DC/DC Converter for Vehicle Drivetrains: Topology and Design Optimization

Sat, 11 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Optimized Multiport DC/DC Converter for Vehicle Drivetrains: Topology and Design Optimization

Tran, D-D., Chakraborty, S., Lan, Y., Van Mierlo, J. & Hegazy, O., 11 Aug 2018, In : Applied Sciences. 8, 8, 1351.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

DC/DC Multiport Converters (MPC) are gaining interest in the hybrid electric drivetrains (i.e., vehicles or machines), where multiple sources are combined to enhance their capabilities and performances in terms of efficiency, integrated design and reliability. This hybridization will lead to more complexity and high development/design time. Therefore, a proper design approach is needed to optimize the design of the MPC as well as its performance and to reduce development time. In this research article, a new design methodology based on a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) for non-isolated interleaved MPCs is developed to minimize the weight, losses and input current ripples that have a significant impact on the lifetime of the energy sources. The inductor parameters obtained from the optimization framework is verified by the Finite Element Method (FEM) COMSOL software, which shows that inductor weight of optimized design is lower than that of the conventional design. The comparison of input current ripples and losses distribution between optimized and conventional designs are also analyzed in detailed, which validates the perspective of the proposed optimization method, taking into account emerging technologies such as wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC, GaN).
Original languageEnglish
Article number1351
JournalApplied Sciences
Volume8
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2018

Technical Assessment of Utilizing an Electrical Variable Transmission SystEm in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Technical Assessment of Utilizing an Electrical Variable Transmission SystEm in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Vafacipour, M., Baghdadi, M. E., Verbelen, F., Sergeant, P., Van Mierlo, J., Stockman, K. & Hcgazy, O., 10 Aug 2018, ITEC Asia-Pacific 2018 - 2018 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, Asia-Pacific: E-Mobility: A Journey from Now and Beyond. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 8 p. 8433268

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperResearch

Electrical Variable Transmission (EVT), an electromechanical device, can be considered as an alternative solution to the conventional transmission system utilized in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This paper presents a comparison, in terms of fuel consumption of a HEV containing an EVT, a conventional parallel topology and a series topology. To this end, corresponding simulations of these topologies are performed in presence of control strategies enabling battery charge-sustaining and efficient power split. The power flow through the components of the vehicle are attained and fuel consumption results of the considered cases are compared. The investigation of the results indicates suitability of utilizing EVT in HEV configurations with further optimization. The outcome of the current research paves its path for implementation of design optimization approaches on such systems in further research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationITEC Asia-Pacific 2018 - 2018 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, Asia-Pacific
Subtitle of host publicationE-Mobility: A Journey from Now and Beyond
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9781538657829
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2018
Event2018 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, Asia-Pacific, ITEC Asia-Pacific 2018 - Bangkok, Thailand
Duration: 6 Jun 20189 Jun 2018

Conference

Conference2018 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, Asia-Pacific, ITEC Asia-Pacific 2018
CountryThailand
CityBangkok
Period6/06/189/06/18

Application of New Fast, Efficient-Self adjusting PSO-Search Algorithms in Power Systems' Studies

Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Application of New Fast, Efficient-Self adjusting PSO-Search Algorithms in Power Systems' Studies

M Sharaf, A., Mavalizadeh, H., Ahmadi, A., Heidari Gandoman, F., Homaee, O. & Shayanfar, H. A., 1 Aug 2018, 1 ed. chapter 3 (pp: 33-61): Elsevier. 28 p.

Research output: Book/ReportBookResearch

In this chapter, we present the validated particle swarm optimization (PSO) search and optimization technique developed by the First Author, which is based on dynamic error scaling of the weightings Omega and Delta in speed and position equations. The dynamic scaled/corrective action is based on a judicious selection of the error and its. This ensures efficient search and fast convergence to optimality condition with a reduced computational burden. The primary challenge is to find an optimal scheme to relate the error in each iteration, to the direction of particles. The primary goal is to find a scheme that moves particles toward the optimal solution. Several algorithms are presented for this purpose. The presented algorithms are compared to the conventional PSO method for multiple case studies. The algorithms are also used to solve a reactive market clearing problem. A new index is also introduced in this chapter which considers the convergence speed and the accuracy and compares the performance of the presented algorithms. Experimental results from case studies in which these proposed algorithms were tested show good performance from both an accuracy and convergence speed point of view.
Original languageEnglish
Place of Publicationchapter 3 (pp: 33-61)
PublisherElsevier
Number of pages28
Volume1
Edition1
ISBN (Print)978-0-12-812441-3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

Online Multi Chemistry SoC Estimation Technique Using Data Driven Battery Model Parameter Estimation

Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Online Multi Chemistry SoC Estimation Technique Using Data Driven Battery Model Parameter Estimation

De Sutter, L., Nikolian, A., Timmermans, J-M., Omar, N. & Van Mierlo, J., 1 Aug 2018, In : World Electric Vehicle Journal. 9, 2, 15 p., 16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Kalman filters have shown to be a very accurate and robust method for State of Charge estimation. However, their performance depends heavily on the accuracy of the used battery model and its parameters. These battery model parameters have shown to vary with the State of Health, cell chemistry, temperature and load current. This paper studies a data driven battery model parameter estimation technique based on the recursive least squares method as an alternative to extensively characterizing every cell of interest with time-consuming test procedures. The performance of two commonly used electrical models is compared and extensively validated on three different cell chemistries (Nickel Cobalt Manganese, Lithium Iron Phosphate and Lithium Titanate Oxide), under load conditions of varying dynamic nature representative for electric vehicle (EV) applications, using a Dynamic Discharge Pulse Test (DDPT) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). The developed model is able to identify and update battery model parameters online, for three different chemistries, potentially reducing offline characterization efforts and allowing monitoring of battery electrical behavior and state estimation over its entire lifetime.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
Number of pages15
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

Short-term Solar Power Forecasting Considering Cloud Coverage and Ambient Temperature Variation Effects

Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Short-term Solar Power Forecasting Considering Cloud Coverage and Ambient Temperature Variation Effects

Heidari Gandoman, F., H.E.Abdel Aleem, S., Omar, N., Ahmadi, A. & Q.Alenezi, F., 1 Aug 2018, In : Renewable Energy. 123, p. 793-805 13 p., 123.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

The use of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems as green renewable sources for electricity generation in modern power networks is steadily increasing. One of the problems with using PV units in developing countries and small companies is access to a simple model to assess the short-time output of a solar cell. For example, a robust model that is capable of analyzing cloud variations and ambient temperature (important factors impacting the PV output) to assess short-term PV output would be very helpful. This article proposes a new methodology to assess the impacts of these factors on the hourly output power of a PV system. Our results showed that the proposed model has the ability to assess PV output by using the hourly data of cloud and ambient temperature change. To validate the model, the output was compared to results of measurements from PV systems installed in Sanandaj and Rasht cities located in North-West (latitude 35.31 and longitude 47.00) and North (latitude 37.28 and longitude 49.58) Iran, respectively. Also, the standardized root-mean-square error method (nRMSE) was used to validate the high accuracy of the proposed method.
Original languageEnglish
Article number123
Pages (from-to) 793-805
Number of pages13
JournalRenewable Energy
Volume123
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

Electricity Generation in LCA of Electric Vehicles: A Review

Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Electricity Generation in LCA of Electric Vehicles: A Review

Marmiroli, B., Messagie, M., Dotelli, G. & Van Mierlo, J., Aug 2018, In : Applied Sciences. 8, 8

Research output: Contribution to journalScientific reviewResearchpeer-review

Life Cycle assessments (LCAs) on electric mobility are providing a plethora of diverging results. 44 articles, published from 2008 to 2018 have been investigated in this review, in order to find the extent and the reason behind this deviation. The first hurdle can be found in the goal definition, followed by the modelling choice, as both are generally incomplete and inconsistent. These gaps influence the choices made in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) stage, particularly in regards to the selection of the electricity mix. A statistical regression is made with results available in the literature. It emerges that, despite the wide-ranging scopes and the numerous variables present in the assessments, the electricity mix’s carbon intensity can explain 70% of the variability of the results. This encourages a shared framework to drive practitioners in the execution of the assessment and policy makers in the interpretation of the results
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Sciences
Volume8
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

Hybrid Battery/Lithium-Ion Capacitor Energy Storage System for a Pure Electric Bus for an Urban Transportation Application

Thu, 19 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Hybrid Battery/Lithium-Ion Capacitor Energy Storage System for a Pure Electric Bus for an Urban Transportation Application

Soltani, M., Van Den Bossche, P., Omar, N., Van Mierlo, J., Jaguemont, J., Ronsmans, J. & kakihara, S., 19 Jul 2018, In : Applied Sciences. 8, 7, 19 p., 1176.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Public transportation based on electric vehicles has attracted significant attention in recent years due to the lower overall emissions it generates. However, there are some barriers to further development and commercialization. Fewer charging facilities in comparison to gas stations, limited battery lifetime, and extra costs associated with its replacement present some barriers to achieve better acceptance. A practical solution to improve the battery lifetime and driving range is to eliminate the large-magnitude pulse current flow from and to the battery during acceleration and deceleration. Hybrid energy storage systems which combine high-power (HP) and high-energy (HE) storage units can be used for this purpose. Lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) can be used as a HP storage unit, which is similar to a supercapacitor cell but with a higher rate capability, a higher energy density, and better cyclability. In this design, the LiC can provide the excess power required while the battery fails to do so. Moreover, hybridization enables a downsizing of the overall energy storage system and decreases the total cost as a consequence of lifetime, performance, and efficiency improvement. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the hybrid energy storage system in protecting the battery from damage due to the high-power rates during charging and discharging. The procedure followed and presented in this paper demonstrates the good performance of the evaluated hybrid storage system to reduce the negative consequences of the power peaks associated with urban driving cycles and its ability to improve the lifespan by 16%.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1176
Number of pages19
JournalApplied Sciences
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2018

A novel state of charge and capacity estimation technique for electric vehicles connected to a smart grid based on inverse theory and a metaheuristic algorithm

Sun, 15 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT

A novel state of charge and capacity estimation technique for electric vehicles connected to a smart grid based on inverse theory and a metaheuristic algorithm

Rahbari, O., Omar, N., Firouz, Y., A. Rosen, M., Goutam, S., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J., 15 Jul 2018, In : Energy. 155, p. 1047-1058 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Increasing interest in the successful coordination of electric vehicles and renewable energy sources has recently been shown by researchers and power generation companies, in large part due to its impact on de-carbonization of urban areas and its capability of contributing towards ancillary services. Nevertheless, this coordination requires a bi-directional communication infrastructure, between combined electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, and power plants since one of the main reasons of this combination is to address the temporal fluctuations in renewable power generation. This bi-directional communication enables the power grid to adapt to different power source structures and improves the acceptability of intermittent renewable energy generation. Whereas electric vehicles equipped with lithium-ion batteries appear to be feasible options for stationary energy storage systems, known as a new distributed generation, the flexibility of electric vehicles in vehicle-to-grid connections is completely dependent on the maximum practical capacity and state of charge of each vehicle. Hence this infrastructure for the integration of electric vehicles as new distributed generation and renewable energy systems with electrical grids, emphasizes the need for an off-board state estimation of electric vehicles in aggregators. Moreover, an accurate estimation of the state of health and state of charge when electric vehicles are not charged or discharged by a constant current profile is required to overcome the challenges of existing methods. Each of introduced methods has different limitations, which are presented in this article. This article proposes a novel off-board state estimation technique for such parameters as state of charge and maximum practical capacity by employing a metaheuristic algorithm and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to overcome the limitations of existing methods. Due to drawbacks of filtering techniques, inverse theory is used in this article to convert the filtering problem to an optimization problem in order to take advantage of its capability. The results exhibit not only a high convergence rate (low settling time) but also a high robustness.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1047-1058
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy
Volume155
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2018

Can microalgae biodiesel contribute to achieve the sustainability objectives in the transport sector in France by 2030? A comparison between first, second and third generation biofuels though a range-based Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis

Sun, 15 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT

The present study aims to address the following question: compared with first and second-generation biofuels, can microalgae biodiesel contribute to addressing the sustainability objectives in the transport sector in France? To this end, we deployed the range based Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis (range-based MAMCA) methodology that explicitly considers the different and occasionally conflicting values of the stakeholders (feedstock producers, biofuel producers, refining industry, fuel distributors, end-users, car manufacturers, government, and NGOs). By means of a Monte Carlo simulation, the method also provides an exploratory scenario approach that enables considering uncertainty concerning the context evolution and the biofuel impacts by 2030. In our case study, we aimed at fostering co-construction with stakeholders into the decision-making process by involving them starting from the very beginning of the procedure. Assuming a “weak sustainability” (i.e. the substitutability between human and environmental capital) our results suggest that microalgae biodiesel can contribute to the achievement of the sustainability objectives in the transport sector. Preliminary policy measures are finally suggested to speeding up the deployment of microalgae biodiesel in France. At the overall level, our study provides new insights about the capacity of first, second and third generation biofuels in fulfilling the sustainability criteria of the different stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1032-1046
Number of pages15
JournalEnergy
Volume155
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2018