Publications

Many of our publications can be accessed on researchgate

Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future

Sat, 25 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future

Omar, N., Gopalakrishnan, R., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 25 Nov 2017 Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future. Dresden: VDI/VDE Society, Measurement and Automation, p. 1 20 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

This paper provides an extended summary of the available relevant rechargeable energy storage electrode materials that can be used for hybrid, plugin and battery electric vehicles.
The considered technologies are the existing lithium-ion batteries and the next generation technologies such as lithium sulfur, solid state, metal-air, high voltage materials, metal-air and sodium based.
This analysis gives a clear overview of the battery potential and characteristics in terms of energy, power, lifetime, cost and finally the technical hurdles.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future
Place of PublicationDresden
PublisherVDI/VDE Society, Measurement and Automation
Pages1
Number of pages20
StatePublished - 25 Nov 2017
EventVDI conference - Dresden, Germany

Conference

ConferenceVDI conference
CountryGermany
CityDresden
Period23/11/1624/11/16

Performance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application

Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Performance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application

Yi, L., Omar, N., Nanini-Maury, E., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 31 Oct 2017 Performance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application. VPPC, p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

One of the main barriers to increasing the market size of lithium ion batteries for stationary applications is their lifetime. In order to select the optimal cells for integrating into grids, battery performance characterization and lifetime analysis need to be carried out to assess the battery performance and reliability under various operating conditions. In this work, a comprehensive investigation has been carried out to address these issues for a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide battery type. Moreover, an empirical ageing model for the lifetime prediction is presented.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPerformance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application
PublisherVPPC
Pages1-6
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 31 Oct 2017
EventVPPC 2016 - Hangzhou, China

Conference

ConferenceVPPC 2016
CountryChina
CityHangzhou
Period17/10/1620/10/16
Internet address

Streamline three-dimensional thermal model of a lithium titanate pouch cell battery in extreme temperature conditions with module simulation

Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

In this paper, the development of a three-dimensional (3D) lithium titanium oxide (LTO) pouch cell is presented to
first better comprehend its thermal behavior within electrified vehicle applications, but also to propose a strong modeling
base for future thermal management system. Current 3D-thermal models are based on electrochemical reactions
which are in need for elaborated meshing eort and long computational time. There lacks a fast electro-thermal
model which can capture voltage, current and thermal distribution variation during the whole process. The proposed
thermal model is a reduce-eort temperature simulation approach involving a 0D-electrical model accommodating a
3D-thermal model to exclude electrochemical processes. The thermal model is based on heat-transfer theory and its
temperature distribution prediction incorporates internal conduction and heat generation eect as well as convection.
In addition, experimental tests are conducted to validate the model. Results show that both the heat dissipation rate
and surface temperature uniformity data are in agreement with simulation results, which satisfies the application
requirements for electrified vehicles. Additionally, a LTO battery pack sizing and modeling is also designed, applied
and displays a non-uniformity of the cells under driving operation. Ultimately, the model will serve as a basis for the
future development of a thermal strategy for LTO cells that operate in a large temperature range, which is a strong
contribution to the existing body of scientific literature.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Power Sources
StatePublished - 9 Oct 2017

Fast-charging investigation on high-power and high-energy density pouch cells with 3D-thermal model development

Fri, 15 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

In this paper, insight of thermal behaviour of lithium-ion batteries under fast-charging profiles is investigated. Al-
though battery thermal behaviour has been studied by published models, the reported modeling addresses a specific
application: fast-charging applications. Most papers in literature present the fast-charging application from an elec-
trical point-of-view. There, lacks a comprehensive electro-thermal model which can capture both the heat generation,
voltage and current variation during the whole fast-charging process. In this study, two charging profiles that are
commonly used for fast-charging applications are applied on two lithium-ion chemistries: lithium nickel manganese
cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium titanate (LTO). The first one is designed for high-energy density and the other made
for high-power applications. To enlarge the study scope, the batteries have been tested at three environmental temper-
atures : 25

C, 10

C and 45

C. In addition, a three-dimensional thermal model has been developed within the frame
of open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the thermal behaviour of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs).
Thermal evolutions of the cells during the profile are recorded to witness the temperature distribution and the valida-
tion of the model. The model has indeed well captured the evolution process of the cells from electrical and thermal
point-of-views and achieved reasonably good agreement with the measurements. For example, LTO-based cells have
shown an interesting behavior for which the battery was able to undergo a fast-charge at any tested temperature and
the temperature still remained stable (a temperature rise of less than a 3

C). These parametric studies demonstrate that
the model methodology can be used to predict LiB temperature distribution under fast-charging profiles.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2017

Lithium-Ion Capacitor - Analysis of Thermal Behaviour and Development of 3D Thermal Model

Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Lithium-Ion Capacitor - Analysis of Thermal Behaviour and Development of 3D Thermal Model

Berckmans, G. J., Jaguemont, J., Samba, A., Omar, N., Hegazy, O., Ronsmans, J., Soltani, M., Firouz, Y., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 6 Sep 2017 In : Journal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage. 14, 4, 8 p., 041005

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

The large push for more environmental energy storage solutions for the automotive industry by different actors has led to the usage of lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) combining the features of both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric-double layer capacitors (EDLCs). In this paper, the thermal behavior of two types of advanced LICs has been thoroughly studied and analyzed by developing a three-dimensional (3D) thermal model in COMSOL Multiphysics®. Such an extensive and accurate thermal 3D has not been fully addressed in literature, which is a key building block for designing battery packs with an adequate thermal management. After an extensive measurement campaign, the high accuracy of the developed model in this paper is proven for two types of LICs, the 3300 F and the 2300 F. An error between the simulation and measurements is maximum 2 °C. This 3D model has been developed to gain insight in the thermal behavior of LICs, which is necessary to develop a thermal management system, which can ensure the safe operation of LICs when used in modules or packs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number041005
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 6 Sep 2017

An optimal versatile control approach for plug-in electric vehicles to integrate renewable energy sources and smart grids

Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

An optimal versatile control approach for plug-in electric vehicles to integrate renewable energy sources and smart grids

Rahbari, O., Vafaeipour, M., Omar, N., A. Rosen, . M., Hegazy, O., Timmermans, J-M., Heibati, S. M. & Van Den Bossche, P. 1 Sep 2017 In : Energy. 134, p. 1053-1067 14 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This study proposes a practical solution to deal with challenges of integrating renewable energy sources and electric vehicles into the electric grid, considering generation source intermittency and energy usage inconsistency, via a new adaptive intelligent controller. The present research describes a smart grid consisting of power plants and distributed generation, fueled via photovoltaic panels and wind turbines, and augmented with electric vehicles as power storage devices. Employing a parking lot to deal with challenges such as low penetration of the electric vehicles embedded with Vehicle-to-Grid functionalities encounters two difficulties: where they should be installed, and modeling of bi-directional power flow between electric vehicles, the grid, and the distributed generation system. In this regard, a nonlinear multi-objective problem is designed and solved via employing the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II, and the forward and backward substitution method. In addition, Newton-Raphson Power Flow is adopted and modified to calculate the power flow of the distribution network. The results related to optimal placement and sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems show that bus 16 of the studied grid is the best place to integrate a parking lot – equipped with 117 photovoltaic and 10 wind turbine units - to the tested IEEE-26 buses. Furthermore, this study suggests that the aforementioned grid could employ a complex versatile control unit able to optimize the operating point, scheduling charging and discharging for a large number of electric vehicles while considering the technical aspects (total active power loss and voltage deviation). In this regard, a new hybrid control approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System tuned via utilizing the optimal power flow problem is proposed. The controller's superiority to handle grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid services is discussed and compared to other studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1053-1067
Number of pages14
JournalEnergy
Volume134
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

Cost Projection of State of the Art Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles Up to 2030

Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The negative impact of the automotive industry on climate change can be tackled by changing from fossil driven vehicles towards battery electric vehicles with no tailpipe emissions. However their adoption mainly depends on the willingness to pay for the extra cost of the traction battery. The goal of this paper is to predict the cost of a battery pack in 2030 when considering two aspects: firstly a decade of research will ensure an improvement in material sciences altering a battery’s chemical composition. Secondly by considering the price erosion due to the production cost optimization, by maturing of the market and by evolving towards to a mass-manufacturing situation. The cost of a lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) battery (Cathode: NMC 6:2:2 ; Anode: graphite) as well as silicon based lithium-ion battery (Cathode: NMC 6:2:2 ; Anode: silicon alloy), expected to be on the market in 10 years, will be predicted to tackle the first aspect. The second aspect will be considered by combining process-based cost calculations with learning curves, which takes the increasing battery market into account. The 100 dollar/kWh sales barrier will be reached respectively between 2020-2025 for silicon based lithium-ion batteries and 2025–2030 for NMC batteries, which will give a boost to global electric vehicle adoption.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1314
JournalEnergies
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

Data-Driven Nonlinear Identification of Li-Ion Battery Based on a Frequency Domain Nonparametric Analysis

Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Data-Driven Nonlinear Identification of Li-Ion Battery Based on a Frequency Domain Nonparametric Analysis

Relan, R., Firouz, Y., Timmermans, J-M. P. & Schoukens, J. 1 Sep 2017 In : IEEE transactions on control systems technology : a publication of the IEEE Control Systems Society.. 25, 5, p. 1825-1832

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Lithium ion batteries are attracting significant and growing interest, because their high energy and high power density render them an excellent option for energy storage, particularly in hybrid and electric vehicles. In this brief, a data-driven polynomial nonlinear state-space model is proposed for the operating points at the cusp of linear and nonlinear regimes of the battery's electrical operation, based on the thorough nonparametric frequency domain characterization and quantification of the battery's behavior in terms of its linear and nonlinear behavior at different levels of the state of charge.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1825-1832
Journal IEEE transactions on control systems technology : a publication of the IEEE Control Systems Society.
Volume25
Issue number5
Early online date31 Oct 2016
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

From Desirable to Feasible: Fostering Inter-Institutional Cooperation with Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis

Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

From Desirable to Feasible: Fostering Inter-Institutional Cooperation with Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis

Te Boveldt, G. 14 Aug 2017 Proceedings of the 17th international conference ongroup decision and negotiation. 2017 ed. Hohenheim, Vol. 16, p. 333-340 8 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

Many contemporary policy issues require cooperation between institutions. Yet, cooperation is often hampered by problems including political transaction costs and the non-internalisation of externalities. The article presents a novel evaluation and group decision-making method, Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis, which, in essence, is a framework for applying MCDA in a multi-actor, multi-level context. For each actor the desirability of different decision alternatives is derived from its individual criteria and priorities. Individual actor results are aggregated with those of other actors that have the same role or function in the decision’s implementation, yielding insight in the desirability of the decision alternatives for each of the groups whose support is needed for their implementation. The article shows how COMCA can be applied for overcoming typical hurdles in inter-institutional cooperation by revealing policy options that are feasible considering the actors’ competence to make or break a decision, or revealing policy options that are desirable from local or global points of view.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 17th international conference ongroup decision and negotiation
Place of PublicationHohenheim
Pages333-340
Number of pages8
Volume16
Edition2017
StatePublished - 14 Aug 2017
EventGroup Decision and Negotiation - Hohenheim, Germany

Conference

ConferenceGroup Decision and Negotiation
Abbreviated titleGDN
CountryGermany
CityHohenheim
Period14/08/1718/08/17

An indicator approach to sustainable urban freight transport

Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

An indicator approach to sustainable urban freight transport

Buldeo Rai, H., Van Lier, T., Meers, D. & Macharis, C. 10 Aug 2017 In : Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Several indicators have been established to monitor and evaluate the
sustainability of cities. Logistics and related transportation activities
are underrepresented in these established frameworks despite the
substantial negative impact of urban freight transport (UFT) on
the environment, society and economy. The result is the lack of an
understanding of freight flows’ impact on the liveability of cities. This
paper fills this gap by introducing a comprehensive set of freight
transport related indicators with an operational target in policy
support and urban planning. It provides a discussion of its hierarchical
design and 45 indicators. Using this indicator set, local authorities can
assess and enhance UFT sustainability.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Aug 2017

Variations in hospital costs after traffic injuries: The importance of sociodemographic aspects and comorbidities

Sat, 05 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of sociodemographic aspects and comorbidities on the inpatient hospital care costs of traffic victims are not clear. The main goal of this study is to provide insights into the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical conditions (including comorbidities) of the victims that result in higher hospital costs.

PARTICIPANTS: For the period 2009-2011, people admitted to a hospital as a result of a road traffic crash (N=64,304) were identified in the national Minimal Hospital Dataset, after which they were linked to their respective claims data from the sickness funds.

METHODS: A generalized linear model was used to analyse hospital costs controlling for roadway user categories, demographics (gender, age, individual socioeconomic status (SES)), and clinical factors (the nature, location, and severity of injury, and comorbidities).

RESULTS: The median hospital cost was € 2801 (IQR € 1510-€ 7175, 2015 Euros). There was no significant difference between gender. Low SES inpatients incurred 16% (95% CI: 14%-18%) higher hospital costs than inpatients of high SES. The presence of comorbidities was associated with an increased hospital cost, however with varying magnitude. For example traffic victims suffering from dementia incur significantly higher hospital costs than those who were not (49% higher, 95% CI: 44%-53%), whereas diabetes was associated with a smaller increase in costs compared to non-diabetics (13%, 95% CI: 10%-16%).

CONCLUSION: Comorbidities and low SES are associated with higher hospital costs for traffic victims, notwithstanding their age, and the nature and the severity of their injury. The broad variability of hospital costs among trauma inpatients should be accounted for when reconsidering financing models. Furthermore, the strong predictive value of some comorbidities and SES on hospital costs should be considered when projections of future health care utilisation in traffic safety scenarios are prepared.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInjury Prevention
DOIs
StateE-pub ahead of print - 5 Aug 2017

Three-dimensional electro-thermal model of li-ion pouch cell: Analysis and comparison of cell design factors and model assumptions.

Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Thermal modeling is a powerful tool in optimizing design of battery thermal management systems. Among different modelling methods, parallel electrode based 2D electro-thermal model has been used in the prediction of the complex spatial non-uniformity of battery cell temperature. Here, an electro-thermal model of 20 Ah nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide pouch type lithium-ion battery cell is presented, where an advanced 2D-potential distribution model based on overpotential is bi-directionally coupled with a 3D-temperature distribution model. For state of charge estimation during input parameter determination and simulation, Coulomb counting with Extended Kalman filtering method is used. The model is capable of predicting temperature distribution under constant current and dynamic current accurately. Through simulation, the influence of heat transfer through the tabs and the extended pouch seam on the temperature distribution is analyzed. These design factors are found to increase the overall heat transfer rate and influence the spatial distribution pattern of temperature. Several models with analytical and empirical simplification of potential distribution model, 2D geometrical simplification, and uniform heat generation assumption are demonstrated and compared in terms of accuracy and simulation time. It is illustrated that a 3D model geometry of the battery cell is essential to reproduce spatial temperature non-uniformity with high accuracy. Different simplifications can reduce the simulation time with reasonable accuracy. By comparing the results obtained from different simplifications, the present study depicts a broad scenario of modelling method to serve the purpose of implementation in thermal modeling of large battery packs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)796-808
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Volume126
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Aug 2017

Crowd logistics: an opportunity for more sustainable urban freight transport?

Sat, 22 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Crowd logistics: an opportunity for more sustainable urban freight transport?

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S., Merckx, J. & Macharis, C. 22 Jul 2017 In : European Transport Research Review. 9, 39, 13 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Passenger car occupancy has been falling for years. Partly empty vehicles on our road networks decrease passenger transport sustainability but also contain an opportunity for freight transport. Within Crowd logistics (CL), delivery operations are carried out by using passengers’ excess capacity on journeys that are already taking place, resulting in economic, social and environmental benefits. Existing CL initiatives show, however, that there are important differences between concepts in terms of sustainability. The research aims to develop a suitable and comprehensive definition for CL and identify which factors determine the sustainability potential of CL. We systematically analysed a set of 42 papers and interviewed 11 logistics practitioners in order to capture the state of practice. Following the literature and interviews, we firstly define CL as ‘an information connectivity enabled marketplace concept that matches supply and demand for logistics services with an undefined and external crowd that has free capacity with regards to time and/or space, participates on a voluntary basis and is compensated accordingly’. Secondly, we identify a set of 18 characteristics that can describe the variety of CL concepts. Thirdly, we indicate whether the identified characteristics affect the economy, society and/or environment. The research shows that all characteristics influence economic sustainability while 11 characteristics also affect social and/or environmental sustainability. Our research helps local policy-makers to adapt laws and regulations to the sharing economy developments and provides insight for businesses which CL concept fits their company’s corporate social responsibility strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Transport Research Review
Volume9
Issue number39
StatePublished - 22 Jul 2017

Estimation of Best Linear Approximation from Varying Operating Conditions for the Identification of a Li-Ion Battery Model

Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Estimation of Best Linear Approximation from Varying Operating Conditions for the Identification of a Li-Ion Battery Model

Relan, R., Tiels, K., Timmermans, J-M. P. & Schoukens, J. 9 Jul 2017 IFAC International World Congress. De La Puente, J. A. (ed.). IFAC-PapersOnLine, p. 4890-4895

Research output: ResearchConference paper

The short term dynamic response of the battery varies with varying operating conditions. Hence, even before proceeding towards the modelling step, it is important to fully characterise and understand the dynamic behaviour of the battery at varying operating conditions. In this paper, a data-driven methodology for characterising the battery’s short term electrical response at varying operating conditions e.g. at different levels of SoC and different temperature levels is discussed. Furthermore, a novel way to estimate the best linear approximation from the data acquired at these operating conditions with varying levels of noise and nonlinear distortions is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication IFAC International World Congress
EditorsJuan Antonio De La Puente
PublisherIFAC-PapersOnLine
Pages4890-4895
ISBN (Print)2405-8963
StatePublished - 9 Jul 2017
Event 20th IFAC International World Congress - Toulouse, France

Conference

Conference 20th IFAC International World Congress
CountryFrance
CityToulouse
Period9/07/1714/07/17
Internet address

A New Class of Relational Classification Techniques Based on Centrality Measures

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

A New Class of Relational Classification Techniques Based on Centrality Measures

Robert, D., Verbeke, W., Crispeels, T., Óskarsdóttir, M. & Baesens, B. Jul 2017 21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies. IFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies, 1 p.

Research output: ResearchMeeting abstract (Book)

In this study, we develop a new type of relational classification techniques for application in networked data based on centrality measures. The aim of relational classification is to predict class membership of a node based on the class of linked or neighboring nodes. The proposed class of approaches adopts centrality measures for classification, and more specifically the weighted and unweighted versions of the node degree, betweenness and closeness centrality measures are adopted. Centrality measures provide information about the position and connectedness of a node in a network, which can be used for classification as shown in this study. The proposed approaches allow to explicitly account for the impact of higher order neighborhood nodes, which is relevant and useful since nodes can as well be influenced indirectly, e.g. by nodes connected to neighboring nodes. We present the results of an extensive benchmarking experiment in the setting of customer churn prediction, comparing the predictive performance of this new set of techniques with existing relational learning approaches. For this, different networks from telco companies are analyzed as well as datasets from papers that studied the concept of relational learners.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies
PublisherIFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Jul 2017
Event - Québec City, Canada

Conference

ConferenceIFORS 2017
CountryCanada
CityQuébec City
Period17/07/1721/07/17
Internet address

Inferior member participation prevention in online innovation communities

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Inferior member participation prevention in online innovation communities

Debaere, S., Devriendt, F., Verbeke, W., Coussement, K. & De Ruyck, T. Jul 2017 21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies. IFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies, 1 p.

Research output: ResearchMeeting abstract (Book)

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies
PublisherIFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Jul 2017
Event - Québec City, Canada

Conference

ConferenceIFORS 2017
CountryCanada
CityQuébec City
Period17/07/1721/07/17
Internet address

Profit Driven Uplift Modeling

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Profit Driven Uplift Modeling

Devriendt, F. & Verbeke, W. Jul 2017 21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies. IFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies, 1 p.

Research output: ResearchMeeting abstract (Book)

In order to save costs, marketers often utilize traditional response modelling to target only those customers that are likely to respond to the marketing campaign. This approach is favourable because it avoids people that are uninterested in the campaign and thus avoids pointless costs. However, these models fail to differentiate between customers who respond favourably because of the campaign and customers that respond favourably on their own accord, regardless of the campaign. Uplift modelling aims to establish the difference in customer behaviour because of a specific treatment that is given to the customer. In previous work, an extensive literature review and a benchmarking study has been done by the authors, grouping together all techniques from the literature and testing the performances of most of these techniques on several real-world datasets.

In this paper we cover the results of the benchmarking study and highlight a problem regarding the evaluation of different uplift modelling techniques. Although different evaluation techniques exist to evaluate the performance of uplift models, the interpretability of the metrics is not so intuitive. Therefore we propose a profit-driven approach towards uplift modelling which takes into account the costs of the campaign and the expected benefits. As a marketing campaign is focused on reducing costs and increasing benefits, we notice that very few uplift measures are profit centric. Our profit-driven approach allows us to identify the customers who are both highly influential and beneficial for a campaign. This approach allows for clear and interpretative knowledge to be used in future business decisions when setting up a new campaign.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies
PublisherIFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Jul 2017
Event - Québec City, Canada

Conference

ConferenceIFORS 2017
CountryCanada
CityQuébec City
Period17/07/1721/07/17
Internet address

Modelling of intermodal systems

Mon, 05 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Modelling of intermodal systems

Flodén, J., Meers, D. & Macharis, C. 5 Jun 2017 Intermodal Freight Transport and Logistics. Monios, J. & Bergqvist, R. (eds.). CRC Press, p. 213-238 280 p. 11

Research output: Research - peer-reviewChapter

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntermodal Freight Transport and Logistics
EditorsJason Monios, Rickard Bergqvist
PublisherCRC Press
Pages213-238
Number of pages280
ISBN (Electronic)9781315177762
ISBN (Print)9781498785129
StatePublished - 5 Jun 2017

Addressing fragmented last mile deliveries: Increasing load factors by utilizing free transportation capacity

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Original languageEnglish
StateUnpublished - 1 Jun 2017
EventNECTAR XIV International Conference - Madrid, Spain

Conference

ConferenceNECTAR XIV International Conference
CountrySpain
CityMadrid
Period31/05/172/06/17

Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology

Vanhaverbeke, L., Schreurs, D., De Clerck, Q., Messagie, M. & Van Mierlo, J. 1 Jun 2017 Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology. IEEE

Research output: ResearchConference paper

High purchase prices of electric vehicles (EV) currently still limit market adoption. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) could provide an opportunity to make profit on EV grid connectivity, and thus reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) in comparison with conventional vehicle technologies. This study is a first step towards integrating V2G benefits in TCO modelling. Our Belgian case study on the city, medium and premium car segment illustrates that the benefits according to the current market conditions are very limited, more specifically the total cost decreases through V2G with 1%–2,59% over the lifetime of a vehicle. Through a Monte Carlo analysis on energy prices and the V2G contract conditions, it is shown that currently mainly in the premium market there is potential for a shift towards cleaner vehicles based on lowest total cost of vehicle technology.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTotal cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology
PublisherIEEE
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-1692-5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017
Event2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER) - Monaco, Monaco

Conference

Conference2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
CountryMonaco
CityMonaco
Period11/04/1713/04/17
Internet address

Nieuwe technologie: walhalla of nachtmerrie?

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Nieuwe technologie: walhalla of nachtmerrie?

Macharis, C. Jun 2017 Verkeersspecialist, 237, p. 26-26

Research output: SpecialistArticle

Original languageDutch
Pages26-26
Specialist publicationVerkeersspecialist
PublisherWolters Kluwer
StatePublished - Jun 2017

State of health battery estimator enabling degradation diagnosis: Model and algorithm description

Wed, 31 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

State of health battery estimator enabling degradation diagnosis: Model and algorithm description

Dubarry, M., Berecibar, M., Devie, A., Ansean, D., Omar, N. & Villarreal, I. 31 May 2017 In : Journal of Power Sources. 360, p. 59-69 10 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper presents a novel approach for automated state of health estimation that offers similar advantages to the adaptive methods without being computation intensive. The onboard diagnosis uses a look-up table compiling the evolution of selected features of interest under any possible degradation paths. The look-up table is built from simulations of the impact of degradation on the cell electrochemical behavior. This multi-step method only requires intensive calculations prior to deployment. This approach is validated by experimental data from cells that underwent normal aging as well as plating and overcharge. Additional validation via modeling showed that the method is able to diagnose cells
undergoing any degradation scenario automatically in close to 90% of cases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-69
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume360
StatePublished - 31 May 2017

Improved OCV Model of a Li-Ion NMC Battery for Online SOC Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Improved OCV Model of a Li-Ion NMC Battery for Online SOC Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter

Baccouche, I., Jemmali, S., Manai, B., Omar, N. & Essoukri Ben Amara, N. 26 May 2017 In : Energies. 764, 10, p. 1-22 22 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Accurate modeling of the nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV) and the state of charge (SOC) is required for adaptive SOC estimation during the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery operation. Online SOC estimation should meet several constraints, such as the computational cost, the number of parameters, as well as the accuracy of the model. In this paper, these challenges
are considered by proposing an improved simplified and accurate OCV model of a nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) Li-ion battery, based on an empirical analytical characterization approach. In fact, composed of double exponential and simple quadratic functions containing only five parameters, the proposed model accurately follows the experimental curve with a minor fitting error of 1 mV.
The model is also valid at a wide temperature range and takes into account the voltage hysteresis of the OCV. Using this model in SOC estimation by the extended Kalman filter (EKF) contributes to minimizing the execution time and to reducing the SOC estimation error to only 3% compared to other existing models where the estimation error is about 5%. Experiments are also performed to
prove that the proposed OCV model incorporated in the EKF estimator exhibits good reliability and precision under various loading profiles and temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalEnergies
Volume764
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 26 May 2017

Stakeholder support for crowd logistics: a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis

Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Original languageEnglish
StateUnpublished - 17 May 2017
EventYoung Researchers Seminar 2017 - Berlin, Germany

Conference

ConferenceYoung Researchers Seminar 2017
CountryGermany
CityBerlin
Period16/05/1718/05/17
Internet address

The World Trade Web: Evolution of international trade and globalization from 2000 to 2013

Wed, 10 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The World Trade Web: Evolution of international trade and globalization from 2000 to 2013

Van Tongerloo, O., Robert, D., Crispeels, T. & Verbeke, W. 10 May 2017 Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economische en Sociale Wetenschappen & Solvay Business School, 48 p.(ES Working Paper; no. 9)

Research output: ResearchWorking paper

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBrussels
PublisherVrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economische en Sociale Wetenschappen & Solvay Business School
Number of pages48
StatePublished - 10 May 2017

Publication series

NameES Working Paper
No.9

Combined cycling and calendar capacity fade modeling of a Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt Oxide Cell with real-life profile validation

Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Combined cycling and calendar capacity fade modeling of a Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt Oxide Cell with real-life profile validation

Hoog, J. D., Timmermans, J-M., Ioan-Stroe, D., Swierczynski, M., Jaguemont, J., Goutam, S., Omar, N., Mierlo, J. V. & Bossche, P. V. D. 3 May 2017 In : Applied Energy. 200, p. 47 - 61 15 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper presents the development of a semi-empirical combined lifetime model for a Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) cathode and a graphite anode based cell, considered as one of the most promising candidates for the automotive industry. The development of this model was based on a thorough understanding of the degradation behavior of a 20-A h NMC cell, based on the analysis of the results of an extensive test-matrix using 146 cells. This test-matrix was designed around four impact factors: temperature (25–45 °C), Depth-of-Discharge (100–20% DoD), middle State-of-Charge (80–20% Mid-SoC) and current rates (C/3 to 2C). Gathering sufficient data for a mathematical model requires a huge time-investment, and the measurements gathered over the course of 2.5 years offer a unique insight in the aging behavior of the NMC cells used in this study. Experimental results for cycling aging indicated that the capacity loss was strongly affected by the Depth-of-Discharge and temperature. For calendar aging, an initial increase in capacity was observed when stored at low State-of-Charges, due to electrochemical milling, while the deterioration of the capacity was affected most by high storage State-Of-Charges and storage temperatures. The developed combined lifetime model showed an error of less than 5% RMS compared to the measurement results after a Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test (WLTC) was applied for 18 months.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47 - 61
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Energy
Volume200
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 May 2017

A Data-Driven Method for Energy Consumption Prediction and Energy-Efficient Routing of Electric Vehicles in Real-World Conditions

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Limited driving range remains one of the barriers for widespread adoption of electricvehicles (EVs). To address the problem of range anxiety, this paper presents an energy consumptionprediction method for EVs, designed for energy-efficient routing. This data-driven methodologycombines real-world measured driving data with geographical and weather data to predict theconsumption over any given road in a road network. The driving data are linked to the roadnetwork using geographic information system software that allows to separate trips into segmentswith similar road characteristics. The energy consumption over road segments is estimated using amultiple linear regression (MLR) model that links the energy consumption with microscopic drivingparameters (such as speed and acceleration) and external parameters (such as temperature). A neuralnetwork (NN) is used to predict the unknown microscopic driving parameters over a segmentprior to departure, given the road segment characteristics and weather conditions. The completeproposed model predicts the energy consumption with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 12–14% ofthe average trip consumption, of which 7–9% is caused by the energy consumption estimation of theMLR model. This method allows for prediction of energy consumption over any route in the roadnetwork prior to departure, and enables cost-optimization algorithms to calculate energy efficientroutes. The data-driven approach has the advantage that the model can easily be updated over timewith changing conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number608
Number of pages18
JournalEnergies
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2017

Development of a 2D-thermal model of three battery chemistries

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Development of a 2D-thermal model of three battery chemistries

Jaguemont, J., Nikolian, A., Omar, N., Goutam, S., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 1 May 2017 In : IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. PP, 99, p. 1-1 9 p., 10.1109/TEC.2017.2697944

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

The growing need for accurate estimation of b By fitting attery’s thermal and electrical performances at different operating conditions are crucial in its applications especially in electrified vehicles. This paper presents an effective method for developing a thermal and electrical modelling methodology for calculation thermal behavior of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell and the voltage response under a current solicitation. The model was elaborated on three pouch cells with different battery chemistries for use in electrical vehicles/hybrid electrical vehicles, namely: lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium titanium oxide (LTO). The model, implemented in a Matlab/Simulink interface, uses an equivalent circuit and heat generation equations coupled a thermal model. The three cell chemistries have been investigated using test procedures and thermal images at room temperature. The results of this study show that a temperature distribution to be fairly uniform after a complete discharge for the three chemistries with the lowest temperature gradient found for the LTO-based cell. Finally, comparison between simulation results and measured data under a dynamic profiles shows a good correspondence with the measurements of the validation tests with errors lying between ±4% and 2°C for the electrical and thermal model, respectively
Original languageEnglish
Article number10.1109/TEC.2017.2697944
Pages (from-to)1-1
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
VolumePP
Issue number99
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2017

Resource depletion in an electric vehicle powertrain using different LCA impact methods

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Resource depletion in an electric vehicle powertrain using different LCA impact methods

Hernandez, M., Messagie, M., De Gennaro, M. & Van Mierlo, J. 1 May 2017 In : Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 120, p. 119-130 12 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

The growing demand for electric vehicles entails an increased consumption of critical energetic and non-energetic abiotic resources, necessary for an optimal performance of the vehicle. The depletion of these resources and the future availability to meet their demand appears to be a potential limitation for the expansion of the electrified vehicle industry. The goal of this study is to perform a detailed life cycle analysis, including manufacturing, use and disposal, of key components of EV powertrains, identifying materials and processes responsible for abiotic depletion impact. This study also investigates the sensitivity of the results to the choice of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact methods. For this, a LCA is performed on an integrated electric drive, by considering seven impact methods. Results show that energetic resources consumption generate the largest impact, followed by metals and lastly by mineral resources. The consumption of electricity in each life cycle is a crucial factor in the generation of total impact. There are agreements among methods on the materials and processes contributing the most to depletion, given the differences in approach used by each impact method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-130
Number of pages12
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Volume120
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2017

Travel-based multitasking: review of the empirical evidence

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Travel-based multitasking: review of the empirical evidence

KESERü, I. & Macharis, C. 28 Apr 2017 In : Transport Reviews.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper reviews 58 studies with empirical evidence on travel-based multitasking, identifies gaps in terms of data collection methods and provides a comprehensive review of findings about the significance of variables with an impact on the prevalence and type of multitasking. We identified the limitations of quantitative or qualitative surveys and advocate a mixed methods approach to provide an in-depth understanding of travel-based multitasking. We revealed that cross-country comparisons are missing due to the lack of empirical evidence outside the developed countries. While there are indications of increasing multitasking with mobile devices, we found only two longitudinal surveys that provide evidence. We call for a standardisation of definitions of multitasking activities to enable more longitudinal research. We identified 75 variables that were tested for impact on travel-based multitasking in previous research, of which 60 were found to be significant. Sufficient evidence (i.e. minimum three papers), however, only exists for age, gender, trip duration, travel mode, trip purpose, time of the day and day of the week of the trip and the presence of a travel companion. Therefore, more research is suggested to determine the influence of attitude, comfort, availability of equipment, time use and spatial attributes on the type and prevalence of travel-based multitasking.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransport Reviews
DOIs
StateE-pub ahead of print - 28 Apr 2017

Making multi-actor multi-level decisions with Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis

Thu, 20 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

As many problems concern more than one decision maker, several methods exist to include stakeholders in MCDA, including Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analysis. In this method individual preference rankings based on individual criteria trees are juxtaposed for a multi-stakeholder view. Aggregation of individual outcomes is omitted, as stakeholders typically do not have equal influence with regard to the implementation of the proposed solutions. This stresses the need for a multi-level differentiation between stakeholders.

With the aim to maximize applicability of MCDA in complex, real-world decision problems, a novel method is proposed: Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis. In this method, stakeholders are classified by competence, i.e. their role in the implementation of the decision. Individual preference rankings are aggregated by competence level, i.e. each group of stakeholders that share a task or a function. The result is an overview of the feasibility each of the alternatives’ subtasks, and therefore of the alternatives as a whole.

The method is applied in a study that evaluates solutions for the Brussels North-South Railway Junction, the main bottleneck in the Belgian railway network; a potential mega-project necessitating compliance of multiple decision makers at multiple institutional levels.
Original languageEnglish
StateUnpublished - 20 Apr 2017
Event85THMEETING OF EURO WORKING GROUP ON MCDA - Padova, Italy

Conference

Conference85THMEETING OF EURO WORKING GROUP ON MCDA
CountryItaly
CityPadova
Period20/04/1722/04/17

Modeling and Control of Interleaved DC/DC Boost Converters via Energy Factor Approach

Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Modeling and Control of Interleaved DC/DC Boost Converters via Energy Factor Approach

Nazeraj, E., Hegazy, O. & Van Mierlo, J. 13 Apr 2017 2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER). p. 1-8 8 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

Interleaved DC/DC converters are an interesting solution in applications where stringent requirements on weight and volume are necessary. The interleaving technique allows reducing the weight of the total passive components by using parallel phases or channels. In this paper, the dynamic model of an Interleaved Boost DC/DC Converter (IBC) is developed via the Energy Factor (EF) and sub-sequential parameters. In a DC/DC converter, the EF relates the stored energy to its dynamic characteristics, which helps in the converter design. In addition, the developed model enables to study the dynamic behavior of the converter based on its efficiency, taking into account iron and switching losses that are not fully considered in the standard model. The EF model is compared to the switched model and standard average small-signal model in the MATLAB/Simulink environment in order to verify the modeling approach. As an example, a standard dual-loop control system is designed based on the developed models. Finally, an experimental validation has been performed to evaluate the impact of non-Ohmic losses on the converter dynamic.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
Pages1-8
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 13 Apr 2017
Event2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER) - Monaco, Monaco

Conference

Conference2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
CountryMonaco
CityMonaco
Period11/04/1713/04/17
Internet address

A Comprehensive Study on Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies

Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

A Comprehensive Study on Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies

Gopalakrishnan, R., Goutam, S., Da Quinta E Costa Neves De Oli, L. M., Timmermans, J-M. P., Omar, N., Messagie, M., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 11 Apr 2017 In : Journal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage. 13, 4, p. 040801 25 p., JEECS-16-1121

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper provides an extended overview of the existing electrode materials and electrolytes for energy storage systems, that can be used in environmental friendly hybrid and electric vehicles from the literature based on lithium-ion and non-lithium technologies. The performed analysis illustrates the current and future evolution in the field of electrode materials development (2015 – 2040). The investigated characteristics are specific energy, specific power, cycle life and safety. Furthermore, the proposed study describes the cost and life cycle assessment of the proposed technologies and the availability of these materials.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberJEECS-16-1121
Pages (from-to)040801
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 11 Apr 2017

Design Optimization of a 12/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Design Optimization of a 12/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Argiolas, O., Nazeraj, E., Hegazy, O., De Backer, J., Mohammadi, A. & Van Mierlo, J. 11 Apr 2017 2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER). p. 1-10 10 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is a magnet-less type of electric motor that has recently received an increasing interest for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. One major advantage of SRMs is that they have the lowest material costs. On the other hand, they suffer from relatively high torque ripples, which can make the motor noisy and less efficient. In this paper, the design and optimization of a 12/8 toothed SRM is presented. The goal of the optimization was to analyze and modify the motor geometry in order to optimize the average torque while trying to minimize the torque ripples at the same time. The first step of the optimization consisted in finding the optimum number of winding turns: 7, which was lower than that of the initial design and allowed the rotor diameter to be increased by 24.9 %. This resulted in an increase in average torque of 38.3 % and a decrease in torque ripples of 17.3 %. The next steps consisted in changing the shape of the winding slots by varying other geometrical dimensions and the rotor tooth width. It resulted in a non-negligible additional reduction in torque ripples of 10.2 % and in an average torque further improved by only 2.4 %. This shows that increasing the rotor diameter is the most effective way to increase the torque from the initial design considered, while the other parameters were already quite well dimensioned in this initial design.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
Pages1-10
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 11 Apr 2017
Event2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER) - Monaco, Monaco

Conference

Conference2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
CountryMonaco
CityMonaco
Period11/04/1713/04/17
Internet address

Design and Modeling of V2G Inductive Charging System for Light-Duty Electric Vehicles

Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Design and Modeling of V2G Inductive Charging System for Light-Duty Electric Vehicles

BENôMAR, Y., El Baghdadi, M., Hegazy, O., Yang, Y., Messagie, M. & Van Mierlo, J. 10 Apr 2017 2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER). p. 1-7 8 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is an emerging technology resulting from the emergence of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Renewable Energy Sources (RES). The energy stored in battery packs of EVs are a potential solution to the intermittency of RES. Therefore, the system design and control design of charging infrastructure for EVs are of high importance for the development of V2G. This paper presents a wireless charging infrastructure based on Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) for semi-fast charging of light-duty (LD) EVs. The Power Electronics Converters (PECs) and the applied control strategies are modeled by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the G2V and V2G are feasible with the proposed charging system, providing an overall efficiency of 92%.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
Pages1-7
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 10 Apr 2017
Event2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER) - Monaco, Monaco

Conference

Conference2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
CountryMonaco
CityMonaco
Period11/04/1713/04/17
Internet address

How can authorities support urban consolidation centres? A review of the accompanying measures

Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

How can authorities support urban consolidation centres? A review of the accompanying measures

Lebeau, P., Verlinde, S., Macharis, C. & Van Mierlo, J. 10 Apr 2017 In : Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability. 10, 4, p. 468-486 19 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Freight transport affects urban welfare primarily through congestion and emissions. An urban consolidation centre is regarded as a solution that can reduce those negative impacts of freight vehicles on the city. However, previous experience has demonstrated the challenge that these centres face in being self-sustaining. Given their positive effects on the city, authorities have supported these logistics schemes with different types of accompanying measures. In order to bring to practitioners an overview of these measures, the paper presents the results of a literature review where the different measures are classified according to their financial support, their regulatory support and their indirect regulatory support.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)468-486
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Apr 2017

Initialisation Schemes for the Polynomial Nonlinear State Space Model of the Lithium-ion Battery from Multiple Datasets .

Tue, 28 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Due to slow dynamics data acquisition for battery modelling is a time consuming process and sometimes increasing the measurement time is either not possible due to constraints in data acquisition hardware or it is not possible to cover the whole range of operation in one experiment, hence data from multiple experiments must be acquired. In this paper, two different methodologies to initialise the Polynomial Nonlinear State Space (PNLSS) model structure are proposed, which are based on the Local Polynomial Method (LPM) to estimate nonparametrically the Best Linear Approximation BLA) from multiple datasets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages140
Number of pages1
StatePublished - 28 Mar 2017
Event36th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control - Spa, Belgium

Conference

Conference36th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control
CountryBelgium
CitySpa
Period28/03/1730/03/17
Internet address

Sustainable urban freight transport in megacities in emerging markets

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Sustainable urban freight transport in megacities in emerging markets

Kin, B., Verlinde, S. & Macharis, C. 24 Mar 2017 In : Sustainable Cities and Society. 32, p. 31-41 11 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Megacities in emerging markets are a relatively new phenomenon. The size of these cities combined with the high growth rates provide substantial sustainability challenges. Urban freight transport (UFT) contributes to these challenges. Despite its relatively low share as part of total traffic, the negative impact of UFT is disproportionate. Improving the sustainability in this context is inevitable in the light of further prospected urbanization. To study this topic, a theoretical framework is developed which is subsequently applied on literature. This allows characterizing the UFT system in a city. Such a framework is currently lacking. The framework is developed around the components of a UFT system (demand, supply and context) and the factors influencing these components. Factors include the different supply chains (demand), vehicles used (supply) and traffic measures (context). It is applied to analyse the UFT system in megacities in emerging markets. Results show that demand in different supply chains is fragmented as well as the transport. Uncontrolled sprawl and the existence of an informal economy further contribute to the complexity to regulate UFT. Based hereupon, we discuss efforts to move to more sustainable UFT in this context.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-41
Number of pages11
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
Volume32
StatePublished - 24 Mar 2017

Advanced Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Aging Study of Commercial Li Ion Batteries

Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is the most promising non-destructive method for lithium ion battery diagnosis and materials characterization due to its simple instrumental requirements and powerful output. However, it is not easy to obtain reliable impedance data from the battery system because of its complexity. Many artefacts can be induced by the experimental procedures and the cell design.
In this work, EIS is performed by using the in-house developed multisine technique: Odd Random Phase EIS (ORP-EIS) [1]. Comparing with classical EIS measurements, ORP-EIS has the advantage that additional information can be quantitatively obtained: the level of disturbing noise, the level of the non-linear distortions and the level of the non-stationary behavior. Based on this information, the data quality can be directly evaluated. Additionally, the modeling procedure can be also benefit from this method. By comparing the residual values between experiment and model with the noise levels, the model is also statistically evaluated (see Fig.1). Many efforts have been put in optimizing the experimental protocol for the compact “sandwich” cell design. The conclusion agrees with Levi [2]: the impedance of individual battery electrodes should be measured in symmetric 2-electrodes cells.
In this work, a comprehensive aging study of Li4Ti5O12 /Li(NiCoAl)O2 (LTO/NCA) lithium ion batteries is carried out with a set of commercial pouch cells (5 Ah). It includes both cycling aging and calendar aging with varied aging conditions. These aged batteries are post-mortem analyzed by different techniques. Multiple ORP-EIS experiments are performed with different state-of-charge (SOC) levels for both anode and cathode materials. By fitting with the equivalent circuit model, the charge-transfer resistance Rct which is corresponding to the kinetic parameter is identified. The Rct of LTO shows subtle differences but NCA shows significant variation with different SOC levels due to the complex microstructure changes. By comparing with aged electrodes, the changes of the kinetic parameter can be quantified regarding to the different aging condition.

[1] Van Ingelgem, Yves, Els Tourwé, Orlin Blajiev, Rik Pintelon, and Annick Hubin. "Advantages of odd random phase multisine electrochemical impedance measurements." Electroanalysis 21, no. 6 (2009): 730-739.
[2] Levi, Mikhael D., Vadim Dargel, Yuliya Shilina, Doron Aurbach, and Ion C. Halalay. "Impedance Spectra of Energy-Storage Electrodes Obtained with Commercial Three-Electrode Cells: Some Sources of Measurement Artefacts." Electrochimica Acta 149 (2014): 126-135.

Original languageEnglish
StateUnpublished - 19 Mar 2017
Event20th Topical Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry - Buenos Aires, Argentina

Conference

Conference20th Topical Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry
CountryArgentina
City Buenos Aires
Period19/03/1722/03/17
Internet address

Intermodal freight transport management

Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Intermodal freight transport management

Woxenius, J., Macharis, C., Meers, D. & Woodburn, A. 6 Mar 2017 In : Research in Transportation Business & Management. 23, p. 1-2

Research output: ResearchEditorial

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-2
JournalResearch in Transportation Business & Management
Volume23
DOIs
StatePublished - 6 Mar 2017

Attributable health care costs of traffic victims until 1 year after hospitalisation

Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Attributable health care costs of traffic victims until 1 year after hospitalisation

Devos, S., Van Belleghem, G., Van Lier, T., Annemans, L. & Putman, K. Mar 2017 In : Journal of Transport & Health. 4, p. 171-179

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

We investigated the attributable health care costs of patients who were hospitalised after a traffic injury in Belgium between 2009 and 2011. Clinical and demographic information from a national hospital dataset and health care costs from sickness funds were linked at the individual level. A total of 61,232 traffic victims were identified in the hospital dataset and included in the study. Weekly average health care costs, as well as average attributable health care costs, were calculated until one year after the initial traffic injury hospitalisation. These weekly costs were analysed and compared to the average weekly costs prior to the injury hospitalisation using Generalized Estimation Equations within a case-crossover design. Different costs patterns were estimated for mild, moderate, and severe injury according to ICD-derived Injury Severity Score (ICISS) categorisation. The overall total average attributable health care cost for the first year after the traffic crash was €9977 (€ 2015 prices). The highest attributable health care cost is directly after the injury hospitalisation (3608% higher in the first week compared to average weekly costs before the injury hospitalisation). Compared to the one year period prior to the hospitalisation, the health care expenditures are at least twice as high until week 17. The costs were still significantly higher up to one year after traffic injury onset (32%). These results are based on the analyses of the total population, but similar patterns in the cost trajectories were found for the different ICISS categories. Long term health care expenditures, rather than health care expenditures related to acute care episode only, should be considered in budget planning or priority setting in, for example, traffic injury prevention programs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-179
JournalJournal of Transport & Health
Volume4
Early online date1 Jan 2017
StatePublished - Mar 2017

Modal choice preferences in short-distance hinterland container transport

Mon, 27 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Modal choice preferences in short-distance hinterland container transport

Meers, D., Macharis, C., Vermeiren, T. & Van Lier, T. 27 Feb 2017 In : Research in Transportation Business & Management. 23, p. 46-53

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Short distance inland container transport to Western European seaports provides opportunities for additional modal shift to intermodal transport, thanks to the concentration of transport flows transported to the immediate hinterland of these ports. The literature on modal choice behavior, however, fails to explain the (relatively low) success of this market segment. In this paper, a choice-based conjoint experiment is conducted to increase the insight on the preferences of modal choice decision-makers in Belgium, active in the considered market segment. The findings of the experiment suggest that, to enhance a further modal shift, operators should try to provide daily services at a competitive price, with a focus on providing more reliable services than road transport. Additional efforts should be made to correctly inform decision-makers on the available intermodal services.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-53
JournalResearch in Transportation Business & Management
Volume23
DOIs
StatePublished - 27 Feb 2017

A Bruxelles, l’éclatement des compétences provoque des non-prises de décision et de fausses espérances

Thu, 09 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Translated title of the contributionIn Brussels, the fragementation of competences jeopardises decision making and causes false hopes
Original languageFrench
PagesN.A. (online)
Specialist publicationLa Libre
StatePublished - 9 Feb 2017

Review of Nanotechnology for Anode Materials in Batteries

Mon, 06 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Review of Nanotechnology for Anode Materials in Batteries

Goutam, S., Omar, N., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 6 Feb 2017 Emerging Nanotechnologies in Rechargable Energy Storage Systems. 1st ed. Elsevier, p. 45-77

Research output: Research - peer-reviewChapter

Anode, one of the crucial components in a battery cell equally influence the overall performance of the cell. Versatile applications of batteries and the challenging demand of high performance batteries have led the research beyond the commercial graphite anodes. A significant number of research has been focused in order to develop high performance anodes. Nanotechnology has evidently revealed as a solution to many technical issues in achieving high performance anodes. In this chapter, a comprehensive review was presented highlighting the recent developments in nanotechnology for anode materials for Li-ion, Na-ion and Li-S battery technologies. In the first section, a summary was made on the properties of a high performance anode. Followed by the benefits of nanostructured anodes. Two major aspects of nanostructured anodes, the geometrical aspects and the materials were described separately. In the geometrical aspects, 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D structures were discussed highlighting their beneficial and detrimental influences on the overall performance. In the material sections, recent development in different nanomaterials (carbon based, Si, metal alloys, metal oxides, metal sulfide and phosphide) were summarized. Different nanomaterials exhibit unique beneficial characteristics but also possess limitations. How compositing one material with others along with hybrid structures (combination of different dimensional structures) can overcome the limitations were also presented. Finally, limitations of nanotechnology from the perspective of practical implementation and industrial production were summarized.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEmerging Nanotechnologies in Rechargable Energy Storage Systems
PublisherElsevier
Pages45-77
Edition1st
ISBN (Electronic)9780323429962
ISBN (Print)9780323429771
DOIs
StatePublished - 6 Feb 2017

An overview and experimental evaluation of the state-of-the-art in uplift modeling

Thu, 02 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 2 Feb 2017
EventORBEL 31 - Brussels, Belgium

Conference

ConferenceORBEL 31
CountryBelgium
CityBrussels
Period2/02/173/02/17
Internet address

EMERGING NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN RECHARGEABLE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

Wed, 01 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT

EMERGING NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN RECHARGEABLE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

Omar, N. & Rodriguez, L. M. 1 Feb 2017 1 ed. 3-2-2017: Elsevier. 346 p.

Research output: ResearchBook

The internal combustion engine (ICE), used for vehicular propulsion since the beginning of the automobile era, has come under pressure as a significant contributor to air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions linked to global climate change. These growing environmental concerns, as well as rising petroleum prices, have strained the global economy and spurred research into the development of various types of clean energy transportation systems using electrically propelled vehicles, such as battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Development, sizing, optimizing, and modeling of the energy storage system are among the main challenges for the development of the BEV, PHEV, and HEV. In particular there is a strong interest in the emerging energy storage technologies, such as lithium–sulfur, solid state, zinc–air, lithium–air, and hybrid capacitors. Research is focusing on higher performances, durability, safety, lifetime, and cost, with specific accents according to the application, traction or stationary. A lot of scientific research work has been performed to provide solutions for these challenges. Emerging Nanotechnologies in Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems provides an extensive overview of the technology development process for traction and stationary applications from material to system level. The initial chapters describe in detail the present technology progress from materials points of view and in particular for nanotechnologies. The second half of the book covers the system-related topics, such as safety, thermal management, life cycle assessment and applications. The book deals with key topics in the field of rechargeable energy storage technologies that are interesting for researchers, PhD students, master students, R&D centers, and battery system and application designers.
Original languageEnglish
Place of Publication3-2-2017
PublisherElsevier
Number of pages346
Volume1
Edition1
ISBN (Electronic)978-0-323-42977-1
ISBN (Print)9780323429771
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2017

Influence analysis of static and dynamic fast-charging current profiles on ageing performance of commercial lithium-ion batteries

Wed, 01 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The rate and shape of the charging current indubitably affect the charging time and the ageing rate of a battery. Depending on the application requirements, it is possible to use high-charging current in order to decrease the charging time. However, the influence of fast-charging current profiles should be investigated to identify their impact on battery functionality over time. In this article, static and dynamic fast-charging current profiles are applied to a high power 7 Ah LiFePO4-based cells (LFP), and the results of cycle-life and characterization tests are discussed. To select the proper fast-charging profile, the evaluation relies on some factors: discharge capacity retention, charging capacity, charging time, and cell temperature. After 1700 cycles, the results revealed that the dynamic fast-charging current profile has a prominent role in decreasing the degradation rate as well as the charging time of cells compared with the static fast-charging profile.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-191
Number of pages13
JournalEnergy
Volume120
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2017

Bestuursstructuur blokkeert ambitieuze Brusselse mobiliteitsdoelen

Tue, 24 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Bestuursstructuur blokkeert ambitieuze Brusselse mobiliteitsdoelen

Te Boveldt, G. & Macharis, C. 24 Jan 2017 Brusselnieuws.be, p. N.A. (online)

Research output: VulgarizingArticle

Original languageDutch
PagesN.A. (online)
Specialist publicationBrusselnieuws.be
StatePublished - 24 Jan 2017

Environmental impact of traction electric motors for electric vehicles applications

Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Environmental impact of traction electric motors for electric vehicles applications

Hernandez Rivas, M., Messagie, M., Hegazy, O., Marengo, L., Winter, O. & Van Mierlo, J. Jan 2017 In : The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 22, 1, p. 54-65 12 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-65
Number of pages12
JournalThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2017

Freight demand generation on commodity and loading unit level

Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Freight demand generation on commodity and loading unit level

Mommens, K., Van Lier, T. & Macharis, C. Jan 2017 In : European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research. 17, 1, p. 46-62 17 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Freight sustains our daily lives and economy. Information on its characteristics, its production and consumption locations and its modes of transport are consequently of a crucial importance for private and public decision makers. This paper presents a freight generation model for the Belgian territory. Based on data gathered on transport flows by commodity type and loading unit and data on population density and business establishments with their characteristics, generated and attracted freight volumes were obtained for 4934 zones subdividing the country. A
generalized linear regression analysis with log link was used to do so. Both generated and attracted volumes are connected to one another by a conditional probability function, resulting in an origin-destination matrix. The analysis is to our knowledge unique as modelled volumes and flows can be distinguished by commodity types and loading unit, and this at very detailed geographical scale. This will lead to new in-depth analyses and added value, including effects of loading unit dependent logistics cost structures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-62
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research
Volume17
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2017