Publications

Many of our publications can be accessed on researchgate

Technical Assessment of Hybrid Powertrains for Energy-efficient Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Technical Assessment of Hybrid Powertrains for Energy-efficient Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Barrero Fernandez, R., Tran, D-D., Hegazy, O., Omar, N. & Van Mierlo, J. 19 Apr 2018 (Accepted/In press) Transport Research Arena (TRA) 2018.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

This article presents the approach used for the design optimization of heavy vehicles such as urban buses and delivery trucks as a part or the ORCA European Project. A methodology to find the optimal combination of hardware components and energy management strategy is presented and the use cases where it will be applied are described.
To achieve the optimal results, the vehicles need to be modeled with an appropriated methodology that allows for both performance evaluation and energy consumption assessment in short times. To achieve both objectives, the “forward” vehicle modeling, together with static or “low fidelity” models is proposed. Several simulation examples in both electric and conventional mode are given. These models will be used to assess several potential vehicles design, assess their performance, consumption and eventually estimate the total cost of ownership.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTransport Research Arena (TRA) 2018
StateAccepted/In press - 19 Apr 2018

Phase-change materials (PCM) for automotive applications: A review

Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Phase-change materials (PCM) for automotive applications: A review

Jaguemont, J., Omar, N., Van Mierlo, J. & Van Den Bossche, P. 5 Mar 2018 In : Applied Thermal Engineering. 132, p. 308-320

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

In this paper, an extensive review of a battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) such as phase- change materials (PCMs) in the state of art is proposed. Nowadays, PCMs are particularly attractive and chosen as one of the most interesting cooling system in terms of high-energy storage density. In addi- tion, they are less bulky, complex and expensive than traditional cooling methods such as forced-air cool- ing or liquid cooling. Nonetheless, the integration of PCMs in a battery application calls for an analysis that will enable the researcher to proposed optimized BTMSs. Indeed, due to the lack of literature in this domain, the paper proposed to review all the existing studies on battery applications involving PCMs. Numerical analysis description, heat transfer theory along with the classification of the existing compo- nents for PCMs are also presented. This paper is based on previous reviews to help to update the thin number of references, which is considered by the authors as the major contribution
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)308-320
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Volume132
StatePublished - 5 Mar 2018

Advances in Renewable Energies and Power Technologies: Volume 2: Geothermal and Biomass Energies, Fuel Cells, and Smart Grid

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Advances in Renewable Energies and Power Technologies: Volume 2: Geothermal and Biomass Energies, Fuel Cells, and Smart Grid

M Sharaf, A., Omar, N., Heidari Gandoman, F., Faheem Zobaa, A. & Hossam Eldeen Abdel Aleem, S. 1 Jan 2018 (Accepted/In press) Electric and hybrid vehicle drives and smart grid interfacing.

Research output: ResearchChapter

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectric and hybrid vehicle drives and smart grid interfacing
StateAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2018

Range-based Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis: A combined method of Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to support participatory decision making under uncertainty

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Range-based Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis: A combined method of Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to support participatory decision making under uncertainty

Baudry, G., Macharis, C. & Vallee, T. 1 Jan 2018 In : European Journal of Operational Research. 264, 1, p. 257-269

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Concerns about environmental and social effects have made Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) increasingly popular. Decision making in complex contexts often – possibly always – requires addressing an aggregation of multiple issues to meet social, economic, legal, technical, and environmental objectives. These values at stake may affect different stakeholders through distributional effects characterized by a high and heterogeneous uncertainty that no social actors can completely control or understand. On this basis, we present a new process framework that aims to support participatory decision making under uncertainty: the range-based Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis (range-based MAMCA). On the one hand, the process framework explicitly considers stakeholders’ objectives at an output level of aggregation. On the other hand, by means of a Monte Carlo analysis, the method also provides an exploratory scenario approach that enables the capture of the uncertainty, which stems from the complex context evolution. Range-based MAMCA offers a unique participatory process framework that enables us (1) to identify the alternatives pros and cons for each stakeholder group; (2) to provide probabilities about the risk of supporting mistaken, or at least ill-suited, decisions because of the uncertainty regarding to the decision-making context; (3) to take the decision-makers’ limited control of the actual policy effects over the implementation of one or several options into account. The range-based MAMCA framework is illustrated by means of our first case study that aimed to assess French stakeholders’ support for different biofuel options by 2030.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-269
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Volume264
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018

Review of FACTS technologies and applications for power quality in smartgrids with renewable energy systems

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Review of FACTS technologies and applications for power quality in smartgrids with renewable energy systems

Heidari Gandoman, F., Ahmadi, A., M Sharaf, A., Siano, P., Pou, J., Hredzak, B. & G. Agelidis, V. 1 Jan 2018 Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 1, 82, p. 502-514

Research output: VulgarizingArticle

In the last two decades, emerging use of renewable and distributed energy sources in electricity grid has creatednew challenges for the utility regarding the power quality, voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization.Power electronic converters are extensively utilized to interface the emerging energy systems (without and withenergy storage) and smart buildings with the transmission and distribution systems. Flexible ac transmissionsystems (FACTSs) and voltage-source converters, with smart dynamic controllers, are emerging as a stabilizationand powerfiltering equipment to improve the power quality. Also, distributed FACTSs play an important role inimproving the power factor, energy utilization, enhancing the power quality, and ensuring efficient energyutilization and energy management in smart grids with renewable energy sources. This paper presents a lit-erature survey of FACTS technology tools and applications for power quality and efficient renewable energysystem utilization

Original languageEnglish
Pages502-514
JournalRenewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
PublisherElsevier
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018

A quick on-line state of health estimation method for Li-ion battery with incremental capacity curves processed by Gaussian filter

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

This paper proposes an advanced state of health (SoH) estimation method for high energy NMC lithium-ion batteries based on the incremental capacity (IC) analysis. IC curves are used due to their ability of detect and quantify battery degradation mechanism. A simple and robust smoothing method is proposed based on Gaussian filter to reduce the noise on IC curves, and the signatures associated with battery ageing can therefore be accurately identified. A linear regression relationship is found between the battery capacity with the positions of features of interest (FOIs) on IC curves. Results show that the developed SoH estimation function from one single battery cell is able to evaluate the SoH of other batteries cycled under different cycling depth with less than 2.5% maximum errors, which proves the robustness of the proposed method on SoH estimation. With this technique, partial charging voltage curves can be used for SoH estimation and the testing time can be therefore largely reduced. This method shows great potential to be applied in reality, as it only requires static charging curves and can be easily implemented in battery management system (BMS).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-53
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume373
Issue number2018
StatePublished - Jan 2018

A robust profit measure for binary classification model evaluation

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

A robust profit measure for binary classification model evaluation

Garrido, F., Verbeke, W. & Bravo, C. 2018 In : Expert Systems with Applications. 92, p. 154-160 7 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Using profit-based evaluation measures is a necessity in business-oriented contexts, as they aid companies in making cost-optimal decisions. Among the measures that effectively include the true nature of costs and benefits in binary classification, the expected maximum profit (EMP) has been used successfully for churn prediction and credit scoring, and defined in general for binary classification problems. However, despite its competitive results against the most frequently used measures, the EMP relies on a fixed probability distribution of costs and benefits, the range of which in real applications is not entirely known. In this paper, we propose to extend this measure by adding random shocks to these distributions. We call this new measure the R-EMP, following the convention of the analogous EMP measure. Our metric adds a stochastic component to each point of the cost-benefit distributions, assuming that costs and benefits have a fixed probability, but its distribution range is subject to an external shock, which can be different for each cost or benefit. The experimental setup is focused on a credit scoring application using a dataset of a Chilean financial institution, with the attribute selection for a logistic regression being accomplished using the AUC, EMP, H-measure, and R-EMP as the selection criteria. The results indicate that the R-EMP measure is the most robust metric for achieving the greatest profit for the company under uncertain external conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-160
Number of pages7
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Volume92
Early online date17 Sep 2017
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018

Pathways to Decarbonise the European Car Fleet: A Scenario Analysis Using the Backcasting Approach

Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Pathways to Decarbonise the European Car Fleet: A Scenario Analysis Using the Backcasting Approach

Höltl, A., Macharis, C. & De Brucker, K. 22 Dec 2017 In : Energies. 11, 1, 20 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper analyses decarbonisation scenarios for the European passenger car fleet in 2050.
The scenarios have been developed using the backcasting approach and aim to reduce greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions of passenger cars to a level defined in the Transport White paper that is 60% below
1990 levels. Considering the emission levels of 2010, a yearly reduction of 1.7% is required in order
to achieve the target. Car emissions were decomposed into the main emission factors of mobility,
efficiency and carbon intensity. How these factors change over time depends on various external
factors: the pace of technological improvements, the future role of cars in society’s mobility system
and the priority given to decarbonising energy demand. The analysis showed that if car mobility
and ownership continue to increase as expected in a ‘business as usual’ case, a share of 97% plug-in
hybrid or battery electric vehicles might be required by 2050, together with a substantial decrease in
greenhouse gas emission from electricity production. A transition to more advanced car technology
such as automated driving, advanced batteries or lightweight materials in vehicle production would
raise vehicle efficiency. Should car mobility continue at a high level, an early technology transition
will be required.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages20
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 22 Dec 2017

An Evaluation Study of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

An Evaluation Study of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses

Tran, D-D., Hegazy, O., Omar, N., Van Mierlo, J. & Barrero Fernandez, R. 14 Dec 2017 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

This paper reviews different configurations of the hybrid-energy-storage-system (HESS), a combination of a Li-ion Battery (LiB) pack, a Li-ion capacitor (LiC) bank, and DC-DC converters, for Plug-in hybrid electric (PHE) buses. A new HESS configuration is proposed to improve the efficiency of power transfer from battery and to reduce the voltage rating of LiC bank associated the cell balancing problem. The simulation results with a standard SORT driving cycle will be used to optimize the sizing of LiB and LiC packs. The comparative analysis illustrates that the proposed configuration has several merits against the conventional hybrid topology based on high-energy batteries and electrical double-layer capacitors in terms of weight and volume.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationVehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
StatePublished - 14 Dec 2017

Complete cell-level lithium-ion electrical ECM model for different chemistries (NMC, LFP, LTO) and temperatures (−5 °C to 45 °C) – Optimized modelling techniques

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

In this study a complete cell-level electrical equivalent circuit model (ECM) of energy and power lithium-ion cells with 3 different chemistries and multiple temperatures (−5 °C to 45 °C) is developed and validated under different dynamic load profiles. The chemistries under investigation are Nickel Manganese Cobalt 20 Ah (high energy), Lithium Iron Phosphate 14 Ah (high power) and Lithium Titanate Oxide 5 Ah (high power), providing a range of different cell characteristics and capacities. An updated workflow for the development of the ECM model is presented which includes extended versions of previous characterization and parameterization procedures used to populate a 2nd Order Thévenin ECM topology. The model is able to use two types of charge estimations, the extended coulomb counting and the extended Kalman filter techniques. The accuracy of the simulation in all three chemistries is increased through this improved characterization and optimization procedures. The “Initial State of Charge value”, “Capacity Value”, “Internal Resistance value” and the “Open Circuit Voltage” are included inside the complete model and have shown to affect greatly the accuracy of the simulations, specifically when the extended coulomb counting technique is implemented. The State of Health (SoH) level the validation profile was characterize in combination with the total time the simulation is performed have shown to affect also the accuracy of the simulation. The complete developed model is able to be combined with thermal and ageing models of lithium-ion cells. Combining this with the extended database of validated simulations for the different chemistries and temperatures, provides a suitable model to be extended to pack-level models of battery packs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-146
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Volume98
Issue numberJune 2018
DOIs
StatePublished - 14 Dec 2017

Modelling alternative distribution set-ups for fragmented last mile transport: Towards more efficient and sustainable urban freight transport

Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Modelling alternative distribution set-ups for fragmented last mile transport: Towards more efficient and sustainable urban freight transport

Kin, B., Spoor, J., Verlinde, S., Macharis, C. & Van Woensel, T. 7 Dec 2017 In : Case Studies on Transport Policy. 8 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

A mathematical model is developed to calculate the costs of alternative distribution set-ups for last mile
transportation in a supply chain with small and fragmented volumes. The model is based on input from logistics
cost models for urban areas combined with cost variables related to logistics processes, receiver attributes and
local city characteristics. The cost variables for each aspect (logistics, receiver, city) influence the cost-effectiveness
and applicability of an alternative distribution set-up. The model is applied on the delivery of fast
moving consumer goods (FMCG) towards small independent retailers in a megacity. The current supply of these
stores is characterized by high costs, inefficiency and unsustainability. Four different set-ups are modelled. The
model shows the effects of different city and store request parameters. When drop sizes are low and distances are
short, direct shipments with smaller vehicles outperform the current direct set-up. When drop sizes are low and
distances are long, collaborating in an urban consolidation centre (UCC) shows a saving. The model can be
further validated with data from other cities and other distribution set-ups.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
DOIs
StatePublished - 7 Dec 2017

Allocating collaborative costs in multimodal barge networks for freight bundling

Fri, 01 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Allocating collaborative costs in multimodal barge networks for freight bundling

Ramaekers, K., Verdonck, L., Caris, A., Meers, D. & Macharis, C. Dec 2017 In : Journal of Transport Geography. 65, p. 56-69

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

In order to improve the competitive position and efficiency level of multimodal transport, consolidation of freight flows is often suggested. Bundling networks require cooperation between multiple partners in the multimodal transport chain. In this context, the question rises how benefits may be allocated fairly among the spatially distributed participants in the cooperation. A great deal of scientific literature reports on the behavior of allocation methods in collaborations between shippers or carriers making use of unimodal road transport. However, research on cost or savings allocation methods in multimodal transport is scarce. The main contribution of this paper is thus to provide a first insight in the complexity of sharing cost savings fairly among shippers who bundle freight flows in order to reach economies of scale in multimodal barge transport. By applying four different allocation methods to two realistic case studies, a comparison is made between simple and straightforward allocation mechanisms and more advanced techniques based on cooperative game theory. Special attention is paid to the savings division among coalition partners and collaborative stability. Results demonstrate the influence of cooperation characteristics on allocation outcomes and underline the value of carefully selecting appropriate allocation mechanisms when long-term stability of the multimodal barge collaboration is aspired.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-69
JournalJournal of Transport Geography
Volume65
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future

Sat, 25 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future

Omar, N., Gopalakrishnan, R., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 25 Nov 2017 Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future. Dresden: VDI/VDE Society, Measurement and Automation, p. 1 20 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

This paper provides an extended summary of the available relevant rechargeable energy storage electrode materials that can be used for hybrid, plugin and battery electric vehicles.
The considered technologies are the existing lithium-ion batteries and the next generation technologies such as lithium sulfur, solid state, metal-air, high voltage materials, metal-air and sodium based.
This analysis gives a clear overview of the battery potential and characteristics in terms of energy, power, lifetime, cost and finally the technical hurdles.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRechargeable Energy Storage Technologies for Automotive Applications – Present and Future
Place of PublicationDresden
PublisherVDI/VDE Society, Measurement and Automation
Pages1
Number of pages20
StatePublished - 25 Nov 2017
EventVDI conference - Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Duration: 23 Nov 201624 Nov 2016

Conference

ConferenceVDI conference
CountryGermany
CityDresden
Period23/11/1624/11/16

The transition to a Zero Emission Vehicles fleet for cars in the EU by 2050: Pathways and impacts: An evaluation of forecasts and backcasting the COP21 commitments

Wed, 01 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The transition to a Zero Emission Vehicles fleet for cars in the EU by 2050: Pathways and impacts: An evaluation of forecasts and backcasting the COP21 commitments

Witkamp, B., van Gijlswijk, R., Bolech, M., Coosemans, T. & Hooftman, N. S. Nov 2017 European Alternative Fuels Observatory. 88 p.

Research output: ResearchCommissioned report

Original languageEnglish
PublisherEuropean Alternative Fuels Observatory
Commissioning bodyEuropean Commission Directorate General for Mobility & Transport
Number of pages88
StatePublished - Nov 2017

Performance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application

Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Performance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application

Yi, L., Omar, N., Nanini-Maury, E., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 31 Oct 2017 Performance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application. VPPC, p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

One of the main barriers to increasing the market size of lithium ion batteries for stationary applications is their lifetime. In order to select the optimal cells for integrating into grids, battery performance characterization and lifetime analysis need to be carried out to assess the battery performance and reliability under various operating conditions. In this work, a comprehensive investigation has been carried out to address these issues for a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide battery type. Moreover, an empirical ageing model for the lifetime prediction is presented.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPerformance and reliability assessment of NMC lithium ion batteries for stationary application
PublisherVPPC
Pages1-6
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 31 Oct 2017
EventVPPC 2016 - Hangzhou, China
Duration: 17 Oct 201620 Oct 2016
http://www.vppc2016.org

Conference

ConferenceVPPC 2016
CountryChina
CityHangzhou
Period17/10/1620/10/16
Internet address

Retailers’ logistics strategies in times of omnichannel retail

Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 18 Oct 2017
Event7th METRANS International Urban Freight Conference - Long Beach, Long Beach, United States
Duration: 18 Oct 201720 Oct 2017

Conference

Conference7th METRANS International Urban Freight Conference
CountryUnited States
CityLong Beach
Period18/10/1720/10/17

A stakeholder-based methodology to enhance the success of urban freight transport measures in a multi-level governance context

Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

A stakeholder-based methodology to enhance the success of urban freight transport measures in a multi-level governance context

Kin, B., Verlinde, S., Mommens, K. M. & Macharis, C. 12 Oct 2017 In : Research in Transportation Economics. 65, p. 10-23

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Urban freight transport (UFT) is fundamental to the liveability of our cities, but it also contributes to the unsustainability of the same cities. Local authorities are primarily responsible for governing urban areas and implement different measures to regulate UFT. Measures often fail as they do not reach their intended goal and sometimes even produce adverse effects. One of the primary causes is that prior to implementation, the different stakeholders affecting and being affected by the UFT are not sufficiently involved. In this study, the multi-actor multi-criteria analysis (MAMCA) is applied ex-ante to evaluate to what extent different measures contribute to the objectives of different stakeholders. A municipality in Belgium, experiencing a lot of traffic, is used as a case study. Regulating UFT is in this case further complicated due to multi-level governance with different jurisdictions over infrastructure. To our knowledge, there are no similar UFT studies in a multi-level governance context. Results show that all proposed measures are an improvement for all stakeholders compared to the current situation. Future implementation of measures in this context is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-23
JournalResearch in Transportation Economics
Volume65
StatePublished - 12 Oct 2017

Online multi chemistry SoC estimation technique using data driven battery model parameter estimation

Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Online multi chemistry SoC estimation technique using data driven battery model parameter estimation

De Sutter, L., Nikolian, A., Timmermans, J-M., Omar, N. & Van Mierlo, J. 9 Oct 2017 Electric Vehicle Symposium 30. 12 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

Kalman filters have shown to be a very accurate and robust method for SoC estimation. However, their
performance depends heavily on the accuracy of the used battery model and its parameters. These battery
model parameters have shown to vary with the SoH, cell chemistry, temperature and load current.
This paper proposes a data driven battery model parameter estimation technique based on the recursive
least squares method as an alternative to extensively characterizing every cell of interest with time consuming
test procedures, reducing offline characterization time by up to 70%. This allows the parameter
estimation model to be applied, in cooperation with a SoC estimation model, to create a data driven multi
chemistry SoC estimation module.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectric Vehicle Symposium 30
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 9 Oct 2017
EventElectric Vehicle Symposium 30 - Stuttgart, Germany
Duration: 9 Oct 201711 Oct 2017
http://www.messe-stuttgart.de/en/evs30/

Conference

ConferenceElectric Vehicle Symposium 30
Abbreviated titleEVS30
CountryGermany
CityStuttgart
Period9/10/1711/10/17
Internet address

Streamline three-dimensional thermal model of a lithium titanate pouch cell battery in extreme temperature conditions with module simulation

Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

In this paper, the development of a three-dimensional (3D) lithium titanium oxide (LTO) pouch cell is presented to
first better comprehend its thermal behavior within electrified vehicle applications, but also to propose a strong modeling
base for future thermal management system. Current 3D-thermal models are based on electrochemical reactions
which are in need for elaborated meshing eort and long computational time. There lacks a fast electro-thermal
model which can capture voltage, current and thermal distribution variation during the whole process. The proposed
thermal model is a reduce-eort temperature simulation approach involving a 0D-electrical model accommodating a
3D-thermal model to exclude electrochemical processes. The thermal model is based on heat-transfer theory and its
temperature distribution prediction incorporates internal conduction and heat generation eect as well as convection.
In addition, experimental tests are conducted to validate the model. Results show that both the heat dissipation rate
and surface temperature uniformity data are in agreement with simulation results, which satisfies the application
requirements for electrified vehicles. Additionally, a LTO battery pack sizing and modeling is also designed, applied
and displays a non-uniformity of the cells under driving operation. Ultimately, the model will serve as a basis for the
future development of a thermal strategy for LTO cells that operate in a large temperature range, which is a strong
contribution to the existing body of scientific literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-33
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume367
StatePublished - 9 Oct 2017

DC Grids for Smart LED-Based Lighting: The EDISON Solution

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

DC Grids for Smart LED-Based Lighting: The EDISON Solution

Thielemans, S., Di Zenobio, D., Touhafi, A., Lataire, P. & Steenhaut, K. 21 Sep 2017 In : Energies. 10, 10, 26 p., 1454

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper highlights the benefits and possible drawbacks of a DC-based lighting infrastructure for powering Light Emitting Diode (LED)-lamps. It also evaluates the efforts needed for integrating the so called smart lighting and other sensor/actuator based control systems, and compares existing and emerging solutions. It reviews and discusses published work in this field with special focus on the intelligent DC-based infrastructure named EDISON that is primarily dedicated to lighting, but is applicable to building automation in general. The EDISON “PowerLAN” consists of a DC-based infrastructure that offers telecommunication abilities and can be applied to lighting retrofitting scenarios for buildings. Its infrastructure allows simple and efficient powering of DC-oriented devices like LED lamps, sensors and microcontrollers, while offering a wired communication channel. This paper motivates the design choices for organizing DC lighting grids and their associated communication possibilities. It also shows how the EDISON based smart lighting solution is evolving today to include new communication technologies and to further integrate other parts of building management solutions through the OneM2M (Machine to Machine) service bus.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1454
Number of pages26
JournalEnergies
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Sep 2017

A Step Towards Demand Sensing: Employing EDI 852 Product Activity Data in Demand Forecasting

Fri, 15 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

A Step Towards Demand Sensing: Employing EDI 852 Product Activity Data in Demand Forecasting

Van Belle, J. E. & Verbeke, W. 15 Sep 2017 37th International Symposium on Forecasting . p. 4 1 p.

Research output: ResearchMeeting abstract (Book)

This paper deals with short-term demand forecasting of medicines in a US drugs factory based on historical sales and EDI 852 product activity data. Traditionally, demand forecasting relies on statistical methods such as ARIMA, and smoothing methods such as exponential smoothing, to extrapolate the series of historical sales. Although these methods produce reasonably accurate forecasts in many cases, companies are looking for an increasingly higher level of forecast accuracy to further enhance the efficiency of their supply chains. With more and more diverse data becoming available at a higher velocity, it becomes possible to employ non-traditional data sources and generate forecasts for increasingly shorter time periods. From this point of view, in recent years, the concept of demand sensing emerged. However, in the scientific literature and empirical studies, the concept has gained only very little attention to date. Essentially, demand sensing comes down to leveraging a combination of near real-time (i.a. orders), downstream (ideally point-of-sale) and external data to improve the accuracy of short-term forecasts. In their purest form, however, the traditional models do not allow for the inclusion of covariates. In this paper a particular type of downstream data, EDI 852 product activity data, is employed in producing short-term weekly demand forecasts obtained from an ARIMAX, ETS-X, artificial neural network and support vector regression model. The EDI 852 is a data standard used for exchanging product related information (e.g. sales over the previous reporting period and ending inventory levels) between the supplier and the (end)customer. In order to produce the weekly demand forecasts, three years of historical weekly factory sales data and weekly wholesaler sales, ending inventory and receipts for the same time period are used. As a benchmark, also forecasts from an artificial neural network autoregression (NNAR), ARIMA and ETS model are produced. Forecast accuracy is measured out-of-sample by MAE, MAPE and MASE, so that both comparison between the methods as well as comparison across different series is facilitated.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication37th International Symposium on Forecasting
Pages4
Number of pages1
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2017
Event37th International Symposium on Forecasting - Cairns Convention Centre, Cairns, Australia
Duration: 25 Jun 201728 Jun 2017
http://forecasters.org/isf/

Conference

Conference37th International Symposium on Forecasting
CountryAustralia
CityCairns
Period25/06/1728/06/17
Internet address

Fast-charging investigation on high-power and high-energy density pouch cells with 3D-thermal model development

Fri, 15 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

In this paper, insight of thermal behaviour of lithium-ion batteries under fast-charging profiles is investigated. Al-
though battery thermal behaviour has been studied by published models, the reported modeling addresses a specific
application: fast-charging applications. Most papers in literature present the fast-charging application from an elec-
trical point-of-view. There, lacks a comprehensive electro-thermal model which can capture both the heat generation,
voltage and current variation during the whole fast-charging process. In this study, two charging profiles that are
commonly used for fast-charging applications are applied on two lithium-ion chemistries: lithium nickel manganese
cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium titanate (LTO). The first one is designed for high-energy density and the other made
for high-power applications. To enlarge the study scope, the batteries have been tested at three environmental temper-
atures : 25

C, 10

C and 45

C. In addition, a three-dimensional thermal model has been developed within the frame
of open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the thermal behaviour of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs).
Thermal evolutions of the cells during the profile are recorded to witness the temperature distribution and the valida-
tion of the model. The model has indeed well captured the evolution process of the cells from electrical and thermal
point-of-views and achieved reasonably good agreement with the measurements. For example, LTO-based cells have
shown an interesting behavior for which the battery was able to undergo a fast-charge at any tested temperature and
the temperature still remained stable (a temperature rise of less than a 3

C). These parametric studies demonstrate that
the model methodology can be used to predict LiB temperature distribution under fast-charging profiles.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2017

Du « grand piétonnier » au projet urbain : atouts et défis pour le centre-ville de Bruxelles: Notes de synthèse BSI

Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Du « grand piétonnier » au projet urbain : atouts et défis pour le centre-ville de Bruxelles: Notes de synthèse BSI

Vermeulen, S., Corijn, E., Vaesen, J., Neuwels, J. & Hardy, M. 11 Sep 2017 In : Brussels Studies. 115, 40 p., 115

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Translated title of the contributionFrom pedestrian area to urban project: assets and challenges for the centre of Brussels : BSI synopsis
The new pedestrian area in the centre of Brussels is one of the most important urban projects of the last decades. In 2015, the central traffic artery, Boulevard Anspach, was pedestrianised. The public space and the biggest metro stations must still be renovated. The implementation of this project and the challenges it faces are inherently complex. Experiences in Belgium and abroad show that the impact on the city centre of Brussels will be significant at different levels: the quality of public space; housing and public services; local economy and employment; mobility, logistics and accessibility; and social and cultural activities. However, recent data and analyses are fragmented, non-existent or inaccessible for all stakeholders involved. Nevertheless, an urban project may only succeed when knowledge and expertise are gathered and shared, and used to support decision-making. Therefore, BSI - Brussels Centre Observatory (BSI-BCO) is monitoring this project closely. Previously published research is further developed in this synopsis [Portfolio#1]. Part 1 discusses the context of the project. Part 2 details the four main challenges based on our first observations. The synopsis concludes with concrete scenarios to improve the overall quality and management of the project.
Original languageFrench
Article number115
Number of pages40
JournalBrussels Studies
Issue number115
DOIs
StatePublished - 11 Sep 2017

Lithium-Ion Capacitor - Analysis of Thermal Behaviour and Development of 3D Thermal Model

Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Lithium-Ion Capacitor - Analysis of Thermal Behaviour and Development of 3D Thermal Model

Berckmans, G. J., Jaguemont, J., Samba, A., Omar, N., Hegazy, O., Ronsmans, J., Soltani, M., Firouz, Y., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 6 Sep 2017 In : Journal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage. 14, 4, 8 p., 041005

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

The large push for more environmental energy storage solutions for the automotive industry by different actors has led to the usage of lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) combining the features of both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric-double layer capacitors (EDLCs). In this paper, the thermal behavior of two types of advanced LICs has been thoroughly studied and analyzed by developing a three-dimensional (3D) thermal model in COMSOL Multiphysics®. Such an extensive and accurate thermal 3D has not been fully addressed in literature, which is a key building block for designing battery packs with an adequate thermal management. After an extensive measurement campaign, the high accuracy of the developed model in this paper is proven for two types of LICs, the 3300 F and the 2300 F. An error between the simulation and measurements is maximum 2 °C. This 3D model has been developed to gain insight in the thermal behavior of LICs, which is necessary to develop a thermal management system, which can ensure the safe operation of LICs when used in modules or packs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number041005
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 6 Sep 2017

An optimal versatile control approach for plug-in electric vehicles to integrate renewable energy sources and smart grids

Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

An optimal versatile control approach for plug-in electric vehicles to integrate renewable energy sources and smart grids

Rahbari, O., Vafaeipour, M., Omar, N., A. Rosen, . M., Hegazy, O., Timmermans, J-M., Heibati, S. M. & Van Den Bossche, P. 1 Sep 2017 In : Energy. 134, p. 1053-1067 14 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This study proposes a practical solution to deal with challenges of integrating renewable energy sources and electric vehicles into the electric grid, considering generation source intermittency and energy usage inconsistency, via a new adaptive intelligent controller. The present research describes a smart grid consisting of power plants and distributed generation, fueled via photovoltaic panels and wind turbines, and augmented with electric vehicles as power storage devices. Employing a parking lot to deal with challenges such as low penetration of the electric vehicles embedded with Vehicle-to-Grid functionalities encounters two difficulties: where they should be installed, and modeling of bi-directional power flow between electric vehicles, the grid, and the distributed generation system. In this regard, a nonlinear multi-objective problem is designed and solved via employing the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II, and the forward and backward substitution method. In addition, Newton-Raphson Power Flow is adopted and modified to calculate the power flow of the distribution network. The results related to optimal placement and sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems show that bus 16 of the studied grid is the best place to integrate a parking lot – equipped with 117 photovoltaic and 10 wind turbine units - to the tested IEEE-26 buses. Furthermore, this study suggests that the aforementioned grid could employ a complex versatile control unit able to optimize the operating point, scheduling charging and discharging for a large number of electric vehicles while considering the technical aspects (total active power loss and voltage deviation). In this regard, a new hybrid control approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System tuned via utilizing the optimal power flow problem is proposed. The controller's superiority to handle grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid services is discussed and compared to other studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1053-1067
Number of pages14
JournalEnergy
Volume134
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

Cost Projection of State of the Art Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles Up to 2030

Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The negative impact of the automotive industry on climate change can be tackled by changing from fossil driven vehicles towards battery electric vehicles with no tailpipe emissions. However their adoption mainly depends on the willingness to pay for the extra cost of the traction battery. The goal of this paper is to predict the cost of a battery pack in 2030 when considering two aspects: firstly a decade of research will ensure an improvement in material sciences altering a battery’s chemical composition. Secondly by considering the price erosion due to the production cost optimization, by maturing of the market and by evolving towards to a mass-manufacturing situation. The cost of a lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) battery (Cathode: NMC 6:2:2 ; Anode: graphite) as well as silicon based lithium-ion battery (Cathode: NMC 6:2:2 ; Anode: silicon alloy), expected to be on the market in 10 years, will be predicted to tackle the first aspect. The second aspect will be considered by combining process-based cost calculations with learning curves, which takes the increasing battery market into account. The 100 dollar/kWh sales barrier will be reached respectively between 2020-2025 for silicon based lithium-ion batteries and 2025–2030 for NMC batteries, which will give a boost to global electric vehicle adoption.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1314
JournalEnergies
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

Data-Driven Nonlinear Identification of Li-Ion Battery Based on a Frequency Domain Nonparametric Analysis

Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Data-Driven Nonlinear Identification of Li-Ion Battery Based on a Frequency Domain Nonparametric Analysis

Relan, R., Firouz, Y., Timmermans, J-M. P. & Schoukens, J. 1 Sep 2017 In : IEEE transactions on control systems technology : a publication of the IEEE Control Systems Society.. 25, 5, p. 1825-1832

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Lithium ion batteries are attracting significant and growing interest, because their high energy and high power density render them an excellent option for energy storage, particularly in hybrid and electric vehicles. In this brief, a data-driven polynomial nonlinear state-space model is proposed for the operating points at the cusp of linear and nonlinear regimes of the battery's electrical operation, based on the thorough nonparametric frequency domain characterization and quantification of the battery's behavior in terms of its linear and nonlinear behavior at different levels of the state of charge.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1825-1832
Journal IEEE transactions on control systems technology : a publication of the IEEE Control Systems Society.
Volume25
Issue number5
Early online date31 Oct 2016
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

From Desirable to Feasible: Fostering Inter-Institutional Cooperation with Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis

Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

From Desirable to Feasible: Fostering Inter-Institutional Cooperation with Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis

Te Boveldt, G. 14 Aug 2017 Proceedings of the 17th international conference ongroup decision and negotiation. 2017 ed. Hohenheim, Vol. 16, p. 333-340 8 p.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

Many contemporary policy issues require cooperation between institutions. Yet, cooperation is often hampered by problems including political transaction costs and the non-internalisation of externalities. The article presents a novel evaluation and group decision-making method, Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis, which, in essence, is a framework for applying MCDA in a multi-actor, multi-level context. For each actor the desirability of different decision alternatives is derived from its individual criteria and priorities. Individual actor results are aggregated with those of other actors that have the same role or function in the decision’s implementation, yielding insight in the desirability of the decision alternatives for each of the groups whose support is needed for their implementation. The article shows how COMCA can be applied for overcoming typical hurdles in inter-institutional cooperation by revealing policy options that are feasible considering the actors’ competence to make or break a decision, or revealing policy options that are desirable from local or global points of view.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 17th international conference ongroup decision and negotiation
Place of PublicationHohenheim
Pages333-340
Number of pages8
Volume16
Edition2017
StatePublished - 14 Aug 2017
EventGroup Decision and Negotiation - University of Hohenheim, Hohenheim, Germany
Duration: 14 Aug 201718 Aug 2017

Conference

ConferenceGroup Decision and Negotiation
Abbreviated titleGDN
CountryGermany
CityHohenheim
Period14/08/1718/08/17

An indicator approach to sustainable urban freight transport

Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

An indicator approach to sustainable urban freight transport

Buldeo Rai, H., Van Lier, T., Meers, D. & Macharis, C. 10 Aug 2017 In : Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability. 11, 1, p. 81-102

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Several indicators have been established to monitor and evaluate the
sustainability of cities. Logistics and related transportation activities
are underrepresented in these established frameworks despite the
substantial negative impact of urban freight transport (UFT) on
the environment, society and economy. The result is the lack of an
understanding of freight flows’ impact on the liveability of cities. This
paper fills this gap by introducing a comprehensive set of freight
transport related indicators with an operational target in policy
support and urban planning. It provides a discussion of its hierarchical
design and 45 indicators. Using this indicator set, local authorities can
assess and enhance UFT sustainability.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-102
JournalJournal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Aug 2017

Three-dimensional electro-thermal model of li-ion pouch cell: Analysis and comparison of cell design factors and model assumptions.

Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Thermal modeling is a powerful tool in optimizing design of battery thermal management systems. Among different modelling methods, parallel electrode based 2D electro-thermal model has been used in the prediction of the complex spatial non-uniformity of battery cell temperature. Here, an electro-thermal model of 20 Ah nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide pouch type lithium-ion battery cell is presented, where an advanced 2D-potential distribution model based on overpotential is bi-directionally coupled with a 3D-temperature distribution model. For state of charge estimation during input parameter determination and simulation, Coulomb counting with Extended Kalman filtering method is used. The model is capable of predicting temperature distribution under constant current and dynamic current accurately. Through simulation, the influence of heat transfer through the tabs and the extended pouch seam on the temperature distribution is analyzed. These design factors are found to increase the overall heat transfer rate and influence the spatial distribution pattern of temperature. Several models with analytical and empirical simplification of potential distribution model, 2D geometrical simplification, and uniform heat generation assumption are demonstrated and compared in terms of accuracy and simulation time. It is illustrated that a 3D model geometry of the battery cell is essential to reproduce spatial temperature non-uniformity with high accuracy. Different simplifications can reduce the simulation time with reasonable accuracy. By comparing the results obtained from different simplifications, the present study depicts a broad scenario of modelling method to serve the purpose of implementation in thermal modeling of large battery packs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)796-808
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Volume126
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Aug 2017

Crowd logistics: an opportunity for more sustainable urban freight transport?

Sat, 22 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Crowd logistics: an opportunity for more sustainable urban freight transport?

Buldeo Rai, H., Verlinde, S., Merckx, J. & Macharis, C. 22 Jul 2017 In : European Transport Research Review. 9, 39, 13 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Passenger car occupancy has been falling for years. Partly empty vehicles on our road networks decrease passenger transport sustainability but also contain an opportunity for freight transport. Within Crowd logistics (CL), delivery operations are carried out by using passengers’ excess capacity on journeys that are already taking place, resulting in economic, social and environmental benefits. Existing CL initiatives show, however, that there are important differences between concepts in terms of sustainability. The research aims to develop a suitable and comprehensive definition for CL and identify which factors determine the sustainability potential of CL. We systematically analysed a set of 42 papers and interviewed 11 logistics practitioners in order to capture the state of practice. Following the literature and interviews, we firstly define CL as ‘an information connectivity enabled marketplace concept that matches supply and demand for logistics services with an undefined and external crowd that has free capacity with regards to time and/or space, participates on a voluntary basis and is compensated accordingly’. Secondly, we identify a set of 18 characteristics that can describe the variety of CL concepts. Thirdly, we indicate whether the identified characteristics affect the economy, society and/or environment. The research shows that all characteristics influence economic sustainability while 11 characteristics also affect social and/or environmental sustainability. Our research helps local policy-makers to adapt laws and regulations to the sharing economy developments and provides insight for businesses which CL concept fits their company’s corporate social responsibility strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Transport Research Review
Volume9
Issue number39
StatePublished - 22 Jul 2017

Consumer Acceptance of Autonomous Vehicles: A Pilot Project

Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Consumer Acceptance of Autonomous Vehicles: A Pilot Project

Feys, M. & Vanhaverbeke, L. 12 Jul 2017 Proceedings Automated Vehicle Symposium 2017.

Research output: ResearchConference paper

Car manufacturers and developers of automated driving technology are working together to build automated vehicles. Automated mobility is on the rise and the technology is rapidly evolving. Nevertheless, it is still unsure how the end-consumers will respond to this new technology.
The intention to use automated mobility has been researched by several authors, which signifies the relevance of this research area. However, our main concern about the results is that the intention to use automated vehicles is based on stated preferences and the respondents' imagination towards the use of these vehicles.
The purpose of this study is to pilot a survey instrument to assess the intention to use and consequently the consumers' willingness to accept automated mobility services (AMS). Socio-economic and demographic attributes will be taken into account, but also psychological variables that have been found to be significant in the adoption of new technology and alternative mobility.
The pilot study will contain an experiment with pre-and post-test questionnaires. First, the respondent will be asked to fill in a questionnaire to assess the stated preferences regarding automated vehicles. Then the respondent will be invited to drive an automated car. After the experience, the respondent will be asked to complete the second part of the questionnaire. This set-up is unique in the field of assessing consumers' intention to use AMS because it does not rely solely on the respondent imagination.
We will develop a hybrid choice model. This will consist of a discrete choice model to incorporate choice behaviour, and a technology acceptance model to capture latent psychological variables. By using the hybrid choice model different segments of the population will be identified. These segments will represent subsets of consumers with specific characteristics.
The aim of the pilot study is to validate the model because one of the main issues when developing a new tool, is to guarantee that the operationalised constructs adequately estimate the consumers' intentions to adapt the new technology. After validation, the model can in turn be employed in other areas.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings Automated Vehicle Symposium 2017
StatePublished - 12 Jul 2017

Estimation of Best Linear Approximation from Varying Operating Conditions for the Identification of a Li-Ion Battery Model

Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Estimation of Best Linear Approximation from Varying Operating Conditions for the Identification of a Li-Ion Battery Model

Relan, R., Tiels, K., Timmermans, J-M. P. & Schoukens, J. 9 Jul 2017 IFAC International World Congress. De La Puente, J. A. (ed.). IFAC - PapersOnLine, p. 4890-4895

Research output: ResearchConference paper

The short term dynamic response of the battery varies with varying operating conditions. Hence, even before proceeding towards the modelling step, it is important to fully characterise and understand the dynamic behaviour of the battery at varying operating conditions. In this paper, a data-driven methodology for characterising the battery’s short term electrical response at varying operating conditions e.g. at different levels of SoC and different temperature levels is discussed. Furthermore, a novel way to estimate the best linear approximation from the data acquired at these operating conditions with varying levels of noise and nonlinear distortions is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication IFAC International World Congress
EditorsJuan Antonio De La Puente
PublisherIFAC - PapersOnLine
Pages4890-4895
ISBN (Print)2405-8963
StatePublished - 9 Jul 2017
Event 20th IFAC International World Congress - Toulouse, France
Duration: 9 Jul 201714 Jul 2017
https://www.ifac2017.org/

Conference

Conference 20th IFAC International World Congress
CountryFrance
CityToulouse
Period9/07/1714/07/17
Internet address

A New Class of Relational Classification Techniques Based on Centrality Measures

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

A New Class of Relational Classification Techniques Based on Centrality Measures

Robert, D., Verbeke, W., Crispeels, T., Óskarsdóttir, M. & Baesens, B. Jul 2017 21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies. IFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies, 1 p.

Research output: ResearchMeeting abstract (Book)

In this study, we develop a new type of relational classification techniques for application in networked data based on centrality measures. The aim of relational classification is to predict class membership of a node based on the class of linked or neighboring nodes. The proposed class of approaches adopts centrality measures for classification, and more specifically the weighted and unweighted versions of the node degree, betweenness and closeness centrality measures are adopted. Centrality measures provide information about the position and connectedness of a node in a network, which can be used for classification as shown in this study. The proposed approaches allow to explicitly account for the impact of higher order neighborhood nodes, which is relevant and useful since nodes can as well be influenced indirectly, e.g. by nodes connected to neighboring nodes. We present the results of an extensive benchmarking experiment in the setting of customer churn prediction, comparing the predictive performance of this new set of techniques with existing relational learning approaches. For this, different networks from telco companies are analyzed as well as datasets from papers that studied the concept of relational learners.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies
PublisherIFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Jul 2017
EventIFORS 2017 - Québec City, Canada
Duration: 17 Jul 201721 Jul 2017
http://ifors2017.ca/

Conference

ConferenceIFORS 2017
CountryCanada
CityQuébec City
Period17/07/1721/07/17
Internet address

Inferior member participation prevention in online innovation communities

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Inferior member participation prevention in online innovation communities

Debaere, S., Devriendt, F., Verbeke, W., Coussement, K. & De Ruyck, T. Jul 2017 21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies. IFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies, 1 p.

Research output: ResearchMeeting abstract (Book)

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies
PublisherIFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Jul 2017
EventIFORS 2017 - Québec City, Canada
Duration: 17 Jul 201721 Jul 2017
http://ifors2017.ca/

Conference

ConferenceIFORS 2017
CountryCanada
CityQuébec City
Period17/07/1721/07/17
Internet address

Profit Driven Uplift Modeling

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Profit Driven Uplift Modeling

Devriendt, F. & Verbeke, W. Jul 2017 21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies. IFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies, 1 p.

Research output: ResearchMeeting abstract (Book)

In order to save costs, marketers often utilize traditional response modelling to target only those customers that are likely to respond to the marketing campaign. This approach is favourable because it avoids people that are uninterested in the campaign and thus avoids pointless costs. However, these models fail to differentiate between customers who respond favourably because of the campaign and customers that respond favourably on their own accord, regardless of the campaign. Uplift modelling aims to establish the difference in customer behaviour because of a specific treatment that is given to the customer. In previous work, an extensive literature review and a benchmarking study has been done by the authors, grouping together all techniques from the literature and testing the performances of most of these techniques on several real-world datasets.

In this paper we cover the results of the benchmarking study and highlight a problem regarding the evaluation of different uplift modelling techniques. Although different evaluation techniques exist to evaluate the performance of uplift models, the interpretability of the metrics is not so intuitive. Therefore we propose a profit-driven approach towards uplift modelling which takes into account the costs of the campaign and the expected benefits. As a marketing campaign is focused on reducing costs and increasing benefits, we notice that very few uplift measures are profit centric. Our profit-driven approach allows us to identify the customers who are both highly influential and beneficial for a campaign. This approach allows for clear and interpretative knowledge to be used in future business decisions when setting up a new campaign.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication21st Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies
PublisherIFORS 2017: The International Federation of Operational Research Societies
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Jul 2017
EventIFORS 2017 - Québec City, Canada
Duration: 17 Jul 201721 Jul 2017
http://ifors2017.ca/

Conference

ConferenceIFORS 2017
CountryCanada
CityQuébec City
Period17/07/1721/07/17
Internet address

Modelling of intermodal systems

Mon, 05 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Modelling of intermodal systems

Flodén, J., Meers, D. & Macharis, C. 5 Jun 2017 Intermodal Freight Transport and Logistics. Monios, J. & Bergqvist, R. (eds.). CRC Press, p. 213-238 280 p. 11

Research output: Research - peer-reviewChapter

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntermodal Freight Transport and Logistics
EditorsJason Monios, Rickard Bergqvist
PublisherCRC Press
Pages213-238
Number of pages280
ISBN (Electronic)9781315177762
ISBN (Print)9781498785129
StatePublished - 5 Jun 2017

Addressing fragmented last mile deliveries: Increasing load factors by utilizing free transportation capacity

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Original languageEnglish
StateUnpublished - 1 Jun 2017
EventNECTAR XIV International Conference - Madrid, Spain
Duration: 31 May 20172 Jun 2017
http://eventos.ucm.es/6146/detail/14th-nectar-international-conference_-transport-in-a-networked-society.html

Conference

ConferenceNECTAR XIV International Conference
CountrySpain
CityMadrid
Period31/05/172/06/17
Internet address

Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology

Vanhaverbeke, L., Schreurs, D., De Clerck, Q., Messagie, M. & Van Mierlo, J. 1 Jun 2017 Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology. IEEE, p. 533-538

Research output: ResearchConference paper

High purchase prices of electric vehicles (EV) currently still limit market adoption. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) could provide an opportunity to make profit on EV grid connectivity, and thus reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) in comparison with conventional vehicle technologies. This study is a first step towards integrating V2G benefits in TCO modelling. Our Belgian case study on the city, medium and premium car segment illustrates that the benefits according to the current market conditions are very limited, more specifically the total cost decreases through V2G with 1%–2,59% over the lifetime of a vehicle. Through a Monte Carlo analysis on energy prices and the V2G contract conditions, it is shown that currently mainly in the premium market there is potential for a shift towards cleaner vehicles based on lowest total cost of vehicle technology.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTotal cost of ownership of electric vehicles incorporating Vehicle to Grid technology
PublisherIEEE
Pages533-538
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-1692-5
ISBN (Print)978-1-5386-1693-2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017
Event2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER) - Monaco, Monaco, Monaco
Duration: 11 Apr 201713 Apr 2017
http://conference.evermonaco.com/

Conference

Conference2017 Twelfth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)
CountryMonaco
CityMonaco
Period11/04/1713/04/17
Internet address

Nieuwe technologie: walhalla of nachtmerrie?

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Nieuwe technologie: walhalla of nachtmerrie?

Macharis, C. Jun 2017 Verkeersspecialist, 237, p. 26-26

Research output: SpecialistArticle

Original languageDutch
Pages26-26
JournalVerkeersspecialist
PublisherWolters Kluwer
StatePublished - Jun 2017

State of health battery estimator enabling degradation diagnosis: Model and algorithm description

Wed, 31 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

State of health battery estimator enabling degradation diagnosis: Model and algorithm description

Dubarry, M., Berecibar, M., Devie, A., Ansean, D., Omar, N. & Villarreal, I. 31 May 2017 In : Journal of Power Sources. 360, p. 59-69 10 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper presents a novel approach for automated state of health estimation that offers similar advantages to the adaptive methods without being computation intensive. The onboard diagnosis uses a look-up table compiling the evolution of selected features of interest under any possible degradation paths. The look-up table is built from simulations of the impact of degradation on the cell electrochemical behavior. This multi-step method only requires intensive calculations prior to deployment. This approach is validated by experimental data from cells that underwent normal aging as well as plating and overcharge. Additional validation via modeling showed that the method is able to diagnose cells
undergoing any degradation scenario automatically in close to 90% of cases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-69
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume360
StatePublished - 31 May 2017

Improved OCV Model of a Li-Ion NMC Battery for Online SOC Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter

Fri, 26 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Improved OCV Model of a Li-Ion NMC Battery for Online SOC Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter

Baccouche, I., Jemmali, S., Manai, B., Omar, N. & Essoukri Ben Amara, N. 26 May 2017 In : Energies. 764, 10, p. 1-22 22 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Accurate modeling of the nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV) and the state of charge (SOC) is required for adaptive SOC estimation during the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery operation. Online SOC estimation should meet several constraints, such as the computational cost, the number of parameters, as well as the accuracy of the model. In this paper, these challenges
are considered by proposing an improved simplified and accurate OCV model of a nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) Li-ion battery, based on an empirical analytical characterization approach. In fact, composed of double exponential and simple quadratic functions containing only five parameters, the proposed model accurately follows the experimental curve with a minor fitting error of 1 mV.
The model is also valid at a wide temperature range and takes into account the voltage hysteresis of the OCV. Using this model in SOC estimation by the extended Kalman filter (EKF) contributes to minimizing the execution time and to reducing the SOC estimation error to only 3% compared to other existing models where the estimation error is about 5%. Experiments are also performed to
prove that the proposed OCV model incorporated in the EKF estimator exhibits good reliability and precision under various loading profiles and temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalEnergies
Volume764
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 26 May 2017

Stakeholder support for crowd logistics: a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis

Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Original languageEnglish
StateUnpublished - 17 May 2017
EventYoung Researchers Seminar 2017 - VKU Forum, Berlin, Germany
Duration: 16 May 201718 May 2017
http://www.ectri.org/YRS17/

Conference

ConferenceYoung Researchers Seminar 2017
CountryGermany
CityBerlin
Period16/05/1718/05/17
Internet address

The World Trade Web: Evolution of international trade and globalization from 2000 to 2013

Wed, 10 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The World Trade Web: Evolution of international trade and globalization from 2000 to 2013

Van Tongerloo, O., Robert, D., Crispeels, T. & Verbeke, W. 10 May 2017 Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economische en Sociale Wetenschappen & Solvay Business School, 48 p.(ES Working Paper; no. 9)

Research output: ResearchWorking paper

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBrussels
PublisherVrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economische en Sociale Wetenschappen & Solvay Business School
Number of pages48
StatePublished - 10 May 2017

Publication series

NameES Working Paper
No.9

Combined cycling and calendar capacity fade modeling of a Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt Oxide Cell with real-life profile validation

Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Combined cycling and calendar capacity fade modeling of a Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt Oxide Cell with real-life profile validation

Hoog, J. D., Timmermans, J-M., Ioan-Stroe, D., Swierczynski, M., Jaguemont, J., Goutam, S., Omar, N., Mierlo, J. V. & Bossche, P. V. D. 3 May 2017 In : Applied Energy. 200, p. 47 - 61 15 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper presents the development of a semi-empirical combined lifetime model for a Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) cathode and a graphite anode based cell, considered as one of the most promising candidates for the automotive industry. The development of this model was based on a thorough understanding of the degradation behavior of a 20-A h NMC cell, based on the analysis of the results of an extensive test-matrix using 146 cells. This test-matrix was designed around four impact factors: temperature (25–45 °C), Depth-of-Discharge (100–20% DoD), middle State-of-Charge (80–20% Mid-SoC) and current rates (C/3 to 2C). Gathering sufficient data for a mathematical model requires a huge time-investment, and the measurements gathered over the course of 2.5 years offer a unique insight in the aging behavior of the NMC cells used in this study. Experimental results for cycling aging indicated that the capacity loss was strongly affected by the Depth-of-Discharge and temperature. For calendar aging, an initial increase in capacity was observed when stored at low State-of-Charges, due to electrochemical milling, while the deterioration of the capacity was affected most by high storage State-Of-Charges and storage temperatures. The developed combined lifetime model showed an error of less than 5% RMS compared to the measurement results after a Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test (WLTC) was applied for 18 months.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47 - 61
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Energy
Volume200
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 May 2017

A Data-Driven Method for Energy Consumption Prediction and Energy-Efficient Routing of Electric Vehicles in Real-World Conditions

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Limited driving range remains one of the barriers for widespread adoption of electricvehicles (EVs). To address the problem of range anxiety, this paper presents an energy consumptionprediction method for EVs, designed for energy-efficient routing. This data-driven methodologycombines real-world measured driving data with geographical and weather data to predict theconsumption over any given road in a road network. The driving data are linked to the roadnetwork using geographic information system software that allows to separate trips into segmentswith similar road characteristics. The energy consumption over road segments is estimated using amultiple linear regression (MLR) model that links the energy consumption with microscopic drivingparameters (such as speed and acceleration) and external parameters (such as temperature). A neuralnetwork (NN) is used to predict the unknown microscopic driving parameters over a segmentprior to departure, given the road segment characteristics and weather conditions. The completeproposed model predicts the energy consumption with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 12–14% ofthe average trip consumption, of which 7–9% is caused by the energy consumption estimation of theMLR model. This method allows for prediction of energy consumption over any route in the roadnetwork prior to departure, and enables cost-optimization algorithms to calculate energy efficientroutes. The data-driven approach has the advantage that the model can easily be updated over timewith changing conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number608
Number of pages18
JournalEnergies
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2017

Development of a 2D-thermal model of three battery chemistries

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Development of a 2D-thermal model of three battery chemistries

Jaguemont, J., Nikolian, A., Omar, N., Goutam, S., Van Den Bossche, P. & Van Mierlo, J. 1 May 2017 In : IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. PP, 99, p. 1-9 9 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

The growing need for accurate estimation of b By fitting attery’s thermal and electrical performances at different operating conditions are crucial in its applications especially in electrified vehicles. This paper presents an effective method for developing a thermal and electrical modelling methodology for calculation thermal behavior of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell and the voltage response under a current solicitation. The model was elaborated on three pouch cells with different battery chemistries for use in electrical vehicles/hybrid electrical vehicles, namely: lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium titanium oxide (LTO). The model, implemented in a Matlab/Simulink interface, uses an equivalent circuit and heat generation equations coupled a thermal model. The three cell chemistries have been investigated using test procedures and thermal images at room temperature. The results of this study show that a temperature distribution to be fairly uniform after a complete discharge for the three chemistries with the lowest temperature gradient found for the LTO-based cell. Finally, comparison between simulation results and measured data under a dynamic profiles shows a good correspondence with the measurements of the validation tests with errors lying between ±4% and 2°C for the electrical and thermal model, respectively
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
VolumePP
Issue number99
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2017

Resource depletion in an electric vehicle powertrain using different LCA impact methods

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Resource depletion in an electric vehicle powertrain using different LCA impact methods

Hernandez, M., Messagie, M., De Gennaro, M. & Van Mierlo, J. 1 May 2017 In : Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 120, p. 119-130 12 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

The growing demand for electric vehicles entails an increased consumption of critical energetic and non-energetic abiotic resources, necessary for an optimal performance of the vehicle. The depletion of these resources and the future availability to meet their demand appears to be a potential limitation for the expansion of the electrified vehicle industry. The goal of this study is to perform a detailed life cycle analysis, including manufacturing, use and disposal, of key components of EV powertrains, identifying materials and processes responsible for abiotic depletion impact. This study also investigates the sensitivity of the results to the choice of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact methods. For this, a LCA is performed on an integrated electric drive, by considering seven impact methods. Results show that energetic resources consumption generate the largest impact, followed by metals and lastly by mineral resources. The consumption of electricity in each life cycle is a crucial factor in the generation of total impact. There are agreements among methods on the materials and processes contributing the most to depletion, given the differences in approach used by each impact method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-130
Number of pages12
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Volume120
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2017

Travel-based multitasking: review of the empirical evidence

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Travel-based multitasking: review of the empirical evidence

KESERü, I. & Macharis, C. 28 Apr 2017 In : Transport Reviews.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

This paper reviews 58 studies with empirical evidence on travel-based multitasking, identifies gaps in terms of data collection methods and provides a comprehensive review of findings about the significance of variables with an impact on the prevalence and type of multitasking. We identified the limitations of quantitative or qualitative surveys and advocate a mixed methods approach to provide an in-depth understanding of travel-based multitasking. We revealed that cross-country comparisons are missing due to the lack of empirical evidence outside the developed countries. While there are indications of increasing multitasking with mobile devices, we found only two longitudinal surveys that provide evidence. We call for a standardisation of definitions of multitasking activities to enable more longitudinal research. We identified 75 variables that were tested for impact on travel-based multitasking in previous research, of which 60 were found to be significant. Sufficient evidence (i.e. minimum three papers), however, only exists for age, gender, trip duration, travel mode, trip purpose, time of the day and day of the week of the trip and the presence of a travel companion. Therefore, more research is suggested to determine the influence of attitude, comfort, availability of equipment, time use and spatial attributes on the type and prevalence of travel-based multitasking.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransport Reviews
DOIs
StateE-pub ahead of print - 28 Apr 2017

Making multi-actor multi-level decisions with Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis

Thu, 20 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT

As many problems concern more than one decision maker, several methods exist to include stakeholders in MCDA, including Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analysis. In this method individual preference rankings based on individual criteria trees are juxtaposed for a multi-stakeholder view. Aggregation of individual outcomes is omitted, as stakeholders typically do not have equal influence with regard to the implementation of the proposed solutions. This stresses the need for a multi-level differentiation between stakeholders.

With the aim to maximize applicability of MCDA in complex, real-world decision problems, a novel method is proposed: Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis. In this method, stakeholders are classified by competence, i.e. their role in the implementation of the decision. Individual preference rankings are aggregated by competence level, i.e. each group of stakeholders that share a task or a function. The result is an overview of the feasibility each of the alternatives’ subtasks, and therefore of the alternatives as a whole.

The method is applied in a study that evaluates solutions for the Brussels North-South Railway Junction, the main bottleneck in the Belgian railway network; a potential mega-project necessitating compliance of multiple decision makers at multiple institutional levels.
Original languageEnglish
StateUnpublished - 20 Apr 2017
Event85THMEETING OF EURO WORKING GROUP ON MCDA - Padova, Italy
Duration: 20 Apr 201722 Apr 2017

Conference

Conference85THMEETING OF EURO WORKING GROUP ON MCDA
CountryItaly
CityPadova
Period20/04/1722/04/17